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praeceps, cĭpĭtis (old form praecĭ-pes, cĭpis, Plaut. Rud. 3, 3, 8; id. et Enn. ap. Prisc. p. 725 P. (Ann. v. 391 Vahl.; abl. praecipiti), adj. [prae-caput].

  1. I. Lit., headforemost, headlong (class.): praecipitem trahi, Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 79: aliquem praecipitem deicere, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86: praeceps ad terram datus, dashed to the ground, Liv. 31, 37: praeceps curru ab alto Desilit, Ov. M. 12, 128: hic se praecipitem tecto dedit, threw himself headlong from the roof, Hor. S. 1, 2, 41: aliquem in praeceps jacere, headlong, Tac. A. 4, 22; so, jacto in praeceps corpore, id. ib. 6, 49; cf.: in praeceps deferri, Liv. 5, 47.
    For in praeceps, in late Lat., per praeceps occurs: abiit grex per praeceps in mare, Vulg. Matt. 8, 32; id. Judic. 5, 22.
    Hence, of one going rapidly, headforemost, headlong: de ponte Ire praecipitem in lutum per caputque pedesque, Cat. 17, 9: se jacere praecipitem e vertice, id. 63, 244; Verg. A. 5, 860: ab equo praeceps decidit, Ov. Ib. 259: (apes) praecipites Cadunt, Verg. G. 4, 80: aliquem praecipitem agere, to drive headlong, Cic. Caecin. 21, 60; Verg. A. 5, 456: praecipites se fugae mandabant, Caes. B. G. 2, 24: Monoeten In mare praecipitem deturbat, Verg. A. 5, 175; cf.: praeceps amensque cucurri, Ov. M. 7, 844: praeceps Fertur, is borne headlong, rushes, Hor. S. 1, 4, 30: nuntii, Tac. H. 2, 6.
    1. B. Transf., of inanim. things.
      1. 1. Of localities, qs. that descend suddenly in front, i. e. downhill, steep, precipitous: in declivi ac praecipiti loco, Caes. B. G. 4, 33: via (opp. plana), Cic. Fl. 42, 105: saxa, Liv. 38, 23: fossae, Ov. M. 1, 97; Verg. A. 11, 888: iter, Ov. Tr. 4, 3, 74; cf. trop.: iter ad malum praeceps ac lubricum, Cic. Rep. 1, 28, 44: loci, Col. 1, 2: mons, Plin. Pan. 16.
        1. b. Subst.: praeceps, cĭpĭtis, n., a steep place, a precipice: turrim in praecipiti stantem, Verg. A. 2, 460: specus vasto in praeceps hiatu, Plin. 2, 45, 44, § 115: in praeceps pervenitur, Vell. 2, 3, 4: immane, Juv. 10, 107: altissimum, App. M. 4, p. 144 med.
          In plur.: in praecipitia cursus iste deducit, Sen. Ep. 8, 4.
      2. 2. Sinking, declining: (in vitibus) praecipites palmites dicuntur, qui de hornotinis virgis enati in duro alligantur, Col. 5, 6, 33: sol Praecipitem lavit aequore currum, Verg. G. 3, 359: jam praeceps in occasum sol erat, Liv. 10, 42: dies, id. 4, 9; cf.: senectus, Curt. 6, 5, 3.
      3. 3. In gen., swift, rapid, rushing, violent (poet.; syn.: celer, velox): praeceps Anio, Hor. C. 1, 7, 13: Boreas, Ov. M. 2, 185: nox, fleeting, transient, id. ib. 9, 485: procella, Stat. Th. 5, 419: oceani fragor, Val. Fl. 3, 404: letum, Sen. Hippol. 262: remedium, Curt. 3, 6, 2.
  2. II. Trop., headlong, hasty, rash, precipitate.
    1. A. In gen. (class.): noster erus, qui scelestus sacerdotem anum praecipes Reppulit, Plaut. Rud. 3, 3, 10: sol jam praecipitans me quoque haec praecipitem paene evolvere coëgit, almost headlong, precipitately, Cic. de Or. 3, 55, 209: agunt eum praecipitem poenae civium Romanorum, chase, pursue, id. Verr. 2, 1, 3, § 7: praecipitem amicum ferri sinere, to rush into the abyss, id. Lael. 24, 89: quoniam ab inimicis praeceps agor, am pursued, Sall. C. 31, 9: praeceps celeritas dicendi, Cic. Fl. 20, 48: profectio, Att. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 10, 6: occumbunt multi letumpraecipe cursu, in rapid destruction, Enn. l. l.
      With gen.: SI NON FATORVM PRAECEPS HIC MORTIS OBISSET, sudden as regards fate, Inscr. Grut. 695, 9, emended by Minervini in Bullet. Arch. Napol. III. 1845, p. 41 (but Minervini’s assumption of a new adj., praeceps, from praecipio, anticipating fale, is unnecessary).
    2. B. In partic.
      1. 1. Rash, hasty, inconsiderate: homo in omnibus consiliis praeceps, Cic. Phil. 5, 13, 37: praeceps et effrenata mens, id. Cael. 15, 35: praeceps consilium et immaturum, Suet. Aug. 8: cogitatio, id. Calig. 48: audacia, Val. Max. 1, 6, 7.
      2. 2. Inclined to any thing: praeceps in avaritiam et crudelitatem animus, Liv. 26, 38: praeceps ingenio in iram, id. 23, 7: animus ad flagitia praeceps, Tac. A. 16, 21.
      3. 3. Dangerous, hazardous, critical: in tam praecipiti tempore, Ov. F. 2, 400.
        Hence,
        1. b. Subst.: praeceps, cĭpĭtis, n.
          1. (α) Great danger, extremity, extreme danger, critical circumstances: se et prope rem publicam in praeceps dederat, brought into extreme danger, Liv. 27, 27: levare Aegrum ex praecipiti, Hor. S. 2, 3, 292: aeger est in praecipiti, Cels. 2, 6.
          2. (β) The highest part, summit, sublimity (postAug.): omne in praecipiti vitium stetit, at its point of culmination, Juv. 1, 149: debet orator erigi, attolli, efferri, ac saepe accedere ad praeceps, to verge on the sublime, Plin. Ep. 9, 26, 2.
            Hence, adv.: prae-ceps, headlong.
      1. 1. Lit.: aliquem praeceps trahere, Tac. A. 4, 62: ex his fulgoribus quaedam praeceps eunt, similia prosilientibus stellis, Sen. Q. N. 1, 15, 2: moles convulsa dum ruit intus immensam vim mortalium praeceps trahit atque operit, Tac. A. 4, 62: toto praeceps se corpore ad undas Misit, Verg. A. 4, 253.
      2. 2. Trop.: eversio rei familiaris dignitatem ac famam praeceps dabat, brought into danger, Tac. A. 6, 17: praeceps in exsilium acti, suddenly, hastily, Amm. 29, 1, 21.

praeceptĭo, ōnis, f. [praecipio].

  1. I. A taking beforehand, a receiving in advance (jurid. Lat.): per praeceptionem legamus, Ulp. Reg. 24, 2: dotis, Dig. 23, 4, 26: per praeceptionem legare, Gai. Inst. 2, 192; 216; Paul. Sent. 3, 6, 1.
    1. B. The right of receiving in advance: praeceptionem quadringentorum milium dedit, Plin. Ep. 5, 7, 1: bonorum, Dig. 33, 7, 2.
  2. II. A previous notion, preconception: ad eam praeceptionem accedere, quam inchoatam habebunt in animis, Cic. Part. 36, 123.
  3. III. A precept, injunction (class.): lex est recti praeceptio, pravique depulsio, Cic. N. D. 2, 31, 79: Stoicorum, id. Off. 1, 2, 6: in juris scientiā est persecutionum cautionumque praeceptio, id. Or. 41, 141.
      1. 2. Esp., an imperial rescript or order, Cod. Just. 1, 11, 2; 11, 59, 3.

praeceptīvē, adv., v. praeceptivus fin.

praeceptīvus, a, um, adj. [praecipio], preceptive, didactic (post-Aug.): pars philosophiae, quam Graeci παραινετικήν vocant, nos praeceptivam dicimus, Sen. Ep. 95, 1: portemus praeceptivo modo dicens, in the preceptive, hortatory mode, Tert. Res. Carn. 49; Ambros. Vid. 12, 73; id. in Luc. 6, 90.
Hence, adv.: praeceptīvē, preceptively, didactically (eccl. Lat.): portemus inquit, non portabimus, praeceptive, non promissive, Tert. adv. Marc. 5, 10.

praecepto, āre, v. freq. a. [praecipio], to prescribe often: praeceptat, in Saliari carmine est saepe praecipit, Fest. p. 205 Müll.

praeceptor, ōris, m. [praecipio].

  1. I. One who seizes beforehand, an anticipator (postclass.): servilium praeceptor operum (al. praereptor, al. praecerptor), Paul. Nol. Ep. 23, n. 4.
  2. II. A commander, ruler (postclass.), Gell. 1, 13, 8.
  3. III. A teacher, instructor, preceptor (class.): praeceptor tuus, qui te hanc fallaciam docuit, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 96: vivendi atque dicendi, Cic. de Or. 3, 15, 57: praeceptor et auctor omnium consiliorum totiusque vitae, id. Phil. 2, 6, 14: fortitudinis, id. Fam. 5, 13, 3: philosophiae, Nep. Epam. 2, 2: recti bonique, Petr. 88: ut praeceptori verborum regula constet, Juv. 7, 230.
    Of Christ: Jesu praeceptor, miserere nostri, Vulg. Luc. 17, 13 al.: nostri praeceptores putant, our authorities, Gai. Inst. 2, 219; 3, 87 et saep.

praeceptōrĭus, a, um, v. praecursorius.

praeceptrix, īcis, f. [praeceptor], a preceptress (class.): sapientiā praeceptrice, Cic. Fin. 1, 13, 43: praeceptrix et magistra, Vitr. 10, 1.

praeceptum, i, n., v. praecipio fin.

praeceptus, a, um, Part., from praecipio.

prae-cĭpĭo, cēpi, ceptum, 3, v. a. [capio], to take or seize beforehand, to get or receive in advance (class., esp. in the trop. sense; syn.: anticipo, praeoccupo).

  1. I. Lit.
    1. A. In gen., Lucr. 6, 1050: nisi aquam praecepimus ante, id. 6, 804: a publicanis pecuniam insequentis anni mutuam praeceperat, Caes. B. C. 3, 31: aliquantum viae, to get the start somewhat, Liv. 36, 19: longius spatium fugā, id. 22, 41 fin.: iter, id. 3, 46: Piraeeum quinqueremibus, to preoccupy, id. 32, 16, 5: mons a Lusitanis praeceptus, Sall. Fragm. ap. Gell. 10, 26, 3: si lac praeceperit aestus, i. e. have previously dried up, Verg. E. 3, 98.
    2. B. In partic., in jurid. lang, to receive (esp. an inheritance or bequest) in advance, Plin. Ep. 5, 7, 4: si heres centum praecipere jussus sit, Dig. 30, 122; so ib. 36, 1, 63: quantitatem dotis, ib. 17, 2, 81: dotem, ib. 10, 2, 46: per praeceptionem hoc modo legamus: Lucius Titius hominem Stichum praecipito, Gai. Inst. 2, 216.
  2. II. Trop.
    1. A. In gen., to take or obtain in advance, to anticipate: aliquantum ad fugam temporis Syphax et Hasdrubal praeceperunt, gained some advantage in time, Liv. 30, 8 fin.: tempus, id. 1, 7: celeres neu praecipe Parcas, do not hasten in advance of, do not anticipate, Stat. Th. 8, 328; so, veneno fata praecepit, Flor. 3, 9, 4: praecipio gaudia suppliciorum vestrorum, I rejoice in advance, Anton. ap. Cic. Phil. 13, 20, 45; Hirt. B. G. 8, 51; cf. Liv. 45, 1, 1: jam animo victoriam praecipiebant, figured to themselves beforehand, Caes. B. C. 3, 87 fin.; Liv. 10, 26: spe jam praecipit hostem, Verg. A. 11, 491: praecipere cogitatione futura, to conjecture or imagine beforehand, Cic. Off. 1, 23, 81: omnia, Verg. A. 6, 105; cf.: haec usu ventura opinione praeceperat, had already suspected, Caes. B. G. 7, 9: sed alterum mihi est certius, nec praecipiam tamen, Cic. Att. 10, 1, 2.
    2. B. In partic., to give rules or precepts to any one, to advise, admonish, warn, inform, instruct, teach; to enjoin, direct, bid, order, etc. (syn.: mando, impero, doceo): vilici officia, quae dominus praecepit, Cato, R. R. 142: Philocomasio id praecipiendum est, ut sciat, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 92: quoi numquam unam rem me licet semel praecipere, id. As. 2, 4, 15: quae ego tibi praecipio, ea facito, id. Trin. 2, 2, 17: docui, monui, bene praecepi semper quae potui omnia, Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 6: quicquid praecipies, esto brevis, Hor. A. P. 335: de eloquentiā, Cic. de Or. 2, 11, 48: de agriculturā, Plin. 18, 24, 56, § 201: alicui aliquid praecipere, Cic. Mur. 2, 4: glossemata nobis, Asin. Gall. ap. Suet. Gram. 22: numerumque modumque carinis Praecipiant, Verg. A. 11, 329: cantus lugubres, Hor. C. 1, 24, 2: artem nandi, Ov. Tr. 2, 486: humanitatem, Plin. Ep. 1, 10, 2, etc.: mitem animum et mores modicis erroribus aequos Praecipit, enjoins, recommends, Juv. 14, 16.
      With inf.: justitia praecipit, parcere omnibus, Cic. Rep. 3, 12, 21; so, paeoniam praecipiunt eruere noctu, Plin. 25, 4, 10, § 29: codicillos aperiri testator praecepit, Dig. 31, 1, 89.
      With ut: illud potius praecipiendum fuit, ut, etc., Cic. Lael. 16, 60: recte etiam praecipi potest in amicitiis, ne, etc., id. ib. 20, 75: consulentibus Pythia praecepit, ut, etc., Nep. Milt. 1, 3.
      With subj. alone: praecipit atque interdicit, omnes unum peterent Indutiomarum, Caes. B. G. 5, 58: his praecepit, omnes mortales pecuniā aggrediantur, Sall. J. 28, 1.
      With acc. and inf.: etiam scelere convictos nonnisi ad opus damnari praeceperat, Suet. Ner. 31: D. Claudius edicto praecepit, decreed, commanded, Dig. 48, 10, 15.
      As subst.: praecĭpĭens, entis, m., a teacher, Cic. Rep. 1, 46, 70: jam prope consummata fuerit praecipientis opera, Quint. 2, 6, 6: in numero praecipientium, id. 2, 3, 5.
      Hence, praeceptum, i, n. (acc. to II. B.), a maxim, rule, precept; an order, direction, command, bidding; an injunction, etc. (class.): quo praecepto ab iis diligentissime observato, Caes. B. G. 5, 35: sine praecepto ullius suā sponte struebatur acies, Liv. 9, 31: transvectae praecepto ducis alae, Tac. Agr. 37: hoc praeceptum patet latius, Cic. Tusc. 2, 24, 58; cf.: hoc praeceptum officii diligenter tenendum est, id. Off. 2, 14, 51.
      In plur.: tuis monitis praeceptisque, Cic. Fam. 5, 13, 3: in quam (partem) praecepta nobis danda sunt, id. Inv. 2, 17, 53; 2, 34, 105: abundare praeceptis philosophiae, id. Off. 1, 1, 1: dare praecepta dicendi, id. Brut. 76, 273; cf. studiosis dicendi praecepta tradere, id. Or. 41, 141: deūm praecepta secuti, orders, commands, Verg. G. 4, 448: sine vi non ulla dabit (Nereus) praecepta, id. ib. 4, 398.