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summa, ae, f. (sc. res; old gen. summai, Lucr. 1, 984; 6, 679) [summus, v. superus].

  1. I. Lit., that which is highest in any thing, the top, summit, surface (postAug. and very rare): testudines evectae in summā pelagi, Plin. 9, 10, 12, § 35 (cf. summus, I. s. v. superus).
  2. II. Transf., that which is most important or prominent in any thing, the main thing, chief point, principal matter; the sum, height, substance, summit, completion, perfection
    1. A. In gen.: leges a me edentur non perfectaesed ipsae summae rerum atque sententiae, the main points, chief particulars, Cic. Leg. 2, 7, 18: cujus rei satis erit summam dixisse, id. Inv. 1, 20, 28: ex hac infinitā licentiā haec summa cogitur, ut, etc., id. Rep. 1, 43, 67: lectis rerum summis, Liv. 40, 29, 11: haec summa est, hic nostri nuntius esto, Verg. A. 4, 237: summa est, si curaveris, ut, etc., Cic. Fam. 13, 75, 2: in hoc summa judicii causaque tota consistit, id. Quint. 9, 32: eam ignominiam ad summam universi belli pertinere ratus, to the issue of the whole war, Liv. 32, 17, 3; cf.: haec belli summa nefandi, Verg. A. 12, 572: solus summam habet hic apud nos, the first place, pre-eminence, Plaut. Truc. 4, 2, 15: qui vobis summam ordinis consiliique concedunt, Cic. Cat. 4, 7, 15: summam alicui rei dare, perfection, culmination, Quint. 3, 2, 1: 5, 10, 72; 11, 2, 41; 12, 1, 20: remittendo de summā quisque juris. strict or extreme right, Liv. 4, 43, 11.
    2. B. In partic.
      1. 1. Of a reckoning of numbers, the amount, the sum, sum total, including each of the single items, as if counted: quid, tu, inquam, soles, cum rationem a dispensatore accipis, si aera singula probasti, summam, quae ex his confecta sit, non probare? Cic. Fragm. ap. Non. 193, 11: addendo deducendoque videre, quae reliqui summa fiat, id. Off. 1, 18, 59: Py. Quanta istaec hominum summa est? Ar. Septem milia, Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 46: equitum magno numero ex omni populi summa separato, Cic. Rep. 2, 22, 39: subducamus summam, id. Att. 5, 21, 11: summam facere, id. Verr. 2, 2, 53, § 131.
      2. 2. Of money, a sum, amount.
          1. (α) With pecuniae: pecuniae summam quantam imperaverit, parum convenit, Liv. 30, 16, 12: pecuniae etiam par prope summa fuit, id. 33, 23, 9: summa pecuniae signatae fuit talentūm duo milia et sexcenta, Curt. 3, 13, 16: accessit ad hanc pecuniae summam sex milia talantum, id. 5, 6, 10: pecuniae summa homines movit, Liv. 22, 61, 1; 38, 11, 8; 40, 46, 16; 42, 62, 14; cf.: census equestrem Summam nummorum, Hor. A. P. 384: ob parvam pecuniae summam erogatam, Val. Max. 4, 8, 1.
          2. (β) Without pecuniae: de summā nihil decedet, Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 30: hac summā redempti, Liv. 32, 17, 2; 22, 61, 2: Marcellus decem pondo auri et argenti ad summam sestertii decies in aerarium rettulit, id. 45, 4, 1: quācumque summā tradet luxuriae domum, Phaedr. 4, 4, 44; creditor totius summae, Quint. 5, 10, 117: actor summarum, Suet. Dom. 11.
      3. 3. Without reference to a count, the sum, the whole: de summā mali detrahere, Cic. Tusc. 3, 23, 55: summa cogitationum mearum omnium, id. Fam. 1, 9, 10: meorum maerorum atque amorum summam edictavi tibi, Plaut. Rud. 1, 2, 2: ergo ex hac infinita licentiā haec summa cogitur, Cic. Rep. 1, 43, 67: proposita vitae ejus velut summa, Suet. Aug. 9: vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat incohare longam, Hor. C. 1, 4, 15: summarum summa est aeterna, the sum of all sums, the sum of all things, i. e. the universe, Lucr. 5, 361; so, summa summarum, Plaut. Truc. 1, 1, 4; Sen. Ep. 40, 13; and: summa summaï, Lucr 6, 679.
      4. 4. Adverb.
          1. (α) Ad summam, on the whole, generally, in short, in a word: ille affirmabatad summam: non posse istaec sic abire, Cic. Att. 14, 1, 1; so, ad summam, id. ib. 7, 7, 7; id. Off. 1, 42, 149; id. Fam. 14, 14, 2; Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 106, Juv. 3, 79.
          2. (β) In summā, in all: Drusus erat de praevaricatione a tribunis aerariis absolutus, in summā quattuor sententiis, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 16, 3; Plin. Ep. 1, 22, 6; 2, 11, 25: in omni summā, Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 5, 5
          3. (γ) In summā, at last, finally (post-Aug.): diu colluctatus est: in summā victus occumbit, Just. 13, 8, 8; 22, 1, 8; 37, 1, 8.
    3. C. Transf., the whole (opp. a part): magnam res diligentiam requirebat, non in summā exercitus tuenda, sed in singulis militibus conservandis, Caes. B. G. 6, 34; cf.: summa exercitus salva, the main body of the army, id. B. C. 1, 67: solet quaedam esse partium brevitas, quae longam tamen efficit summam, Quint. 4, 2, 41: quaedam partibus blandiuntur, sed in summam non consentiunt, id. 4, 2, 90.
      1. 2. That which relates to the whole, as opp. to a part; with gen., the general, supreme: (Remi dicebant) ad hunc (regem) totius belli summam omnium voluntate deferri, the command in chief, Caes. B. G. 2, 4: neque de summā belli suum judicium sed imperatoris esse, id. ib. 1, 41: cum penes unum est omnium summa rerum, regem illum unum vocamus, authority over all affairs, the supreme power, Cic. Rep. 1, 26, 42: is, qui summam rerum administrabat, id. Rosc. Am. 32, 91: ad te summa solum, Phormio, rerum redit, Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 3: ad summam rerum consulere, for the general interest, Caes. B. C. 3, 51: ad discrimen summa rerum adducta, to a general engagement, Liv. 10, 27: discrimen summae rerum, id. 10, 14: quos penes summam consilii voluit esse, cum imperii summam rex teneret, the sole command, Cic. Rep. 2, 28, 51; cf.: qui vobis summam ordinis consiliique concedunt, id. Cat. 4, 7, 15: imperii, Caes. B. G. 2, 23; id. B. C. 3, 5: quod penes eos (Bituriges), si id oppidum retinuissent, summam victoriae constare intellegebant, the whole credit of the victory, id. B. G. 7, 21; so, victoriae, id. B. C. 1, 82.
        Poet.: summa ducum, Atri des, Ov. Am. 1, 9, 37.

* sum-maestus (subm-), a, um. adj., somewhat sorrowful, Amm. 30, 1, 2.

summālis, e, adj. [summa], containing a sum, whole (post-class.), Tert. adv. Herm. 31.
Hence, summālĭter, adv., wholly, perfectly, Primas. in Coloss. 1.

Summānālĭa, ium, v. Summanus.

* sum-mānans (subm-), antis, Part. [mano], flowing beneath: aqua sub terrā, Vitr. 3, 1 med.

Summānes (Subm-), ĭum, m., a kind of inferior deities, Mart. Cap. 2, § 164.

summāno (subm-), āre, v. a. and n [sub-mano].

  1. I. Neutr., to glide or trickle under, Vitr. 8, 1, 2.
  2. II. Act., to wet somewhat: vestimenta mea, ubi obdormivi ebrius, Summano (with a play on the name Summanus, i. e. Pluto), Plaut. Curc. 3, 46 (v. the passage in connection).

Summānus (Subm-), i, m., a Roman deity to whom nocturnal lightnings were asscribed, but whose precise nature was unknown even to Ovid; acc. to Mart. Cap. i. q. Pluto, Ov. F. 6, 731; Mart. Cap. 2, § 161; Plaut. Bacch. 4, 8, 54; id. Curc. 3, 43; Liv. 32, 29; Cic. Div. 1, 10, 16; Plin. 2, 52, 53, § 138; 29, 4, 14, § 57; Arn. 3, 44; 5, 37; 6, 3 Orell.; Aug. Civ. Dei, 4, 23; Inscr. Orell. 1466; v. Merkel ad Ov. F. p. ccviii.
Hence: Summanalia liba farinacea in modum rotae ficta, Fest. pp. 348 and 349 Müll. (offered in sacrifice to Summanus).

Summara, ae, f., a town in Ethiopia, Plin. 6, 30, 35, § 193.

summārĭum, ĭi, n. [summa], a summary, epitome, abstract: oratio, quae nunc vulgo breviarium dicitur, olim, cum Latine loqueremur, summarium, vocabatur, Sen. Ep. 39, 1.

summas, ātis, comm. [summa], of high or noble birth, high-born, noble, eminent, distinguished (ante- and post-class.): vir, Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 90; id. Stich. 3, 2, 36; Amm. 14, 6, 12; Sid. Ep. 3, 11: matronae, Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 27: dea, App. M. 11, p. 267, 38: virgo, id. ib. 4, p. 153, 9: puella, Sid. Ep. 9, 6.

summātim, adv. [summa], on the surface, on the outside, slightly.

  1. I. Lit. (post-Aug. and very rare): radicem summatim eradere, Col. 12, 48, 1: eruere radices, id. Arb. 6, 2: ablaqueare vitem, id. ib. 10, 5.
  2. II. Trop., slightly, summarily, cursorily, briefly, compendiously, etc. (class.): summatim rescribere paucis, Lucil. ap. Non. 296, 5: de re pecuariā breviter ac summatim percurram, Varr. R. R. 2, praef. § 7: aliquid summatim perscribere, Cic. Att. 5, 16, 1: aliquid cognoscere, id. Fam. 10, 28, 3: summatim breviterque componere, Suet. Tib. 61: summatim et uno tantummodo versiculo leviter attingit Vergilius, Col. 9, 2, 3: (animal) constitutionem suam crasse intellegit et summatim et obscure, Sen. Ep. 121, 12: aliquid attingere, Quint. 10, 1, 44: poëticam summatim attigit, slightly, Suet. Aug. 85; id. Tib. 61: summatim aestimandum judici, an bonā fide imploretur judicium, Dig 5, 3, 7 med.

* summātus, ūs, m. [summa], chief rule, supremacy, sovereignty, = principatus: imperium ac summatum petere, Lucr. 5, 1142.

summē, adv., v. superus fin.

* sum-mĕdĭus (subm-), a, um, adj., middle, mean positura, Diom. p. 432 P.

* sum-mējo (subm-), ĕre, v. a., to make water under a thing, se, Marc. Emp. 8, 5 med.

* summējŭlus (subm-), i, m. [summejo], one who makes water under himself, who wets his bed, Marc. Emp. 26 fin.

sum-mergo (subm-), si, sum, 3, v. a., to dip or plunge under, to sink, overwhelm, submerge, submerse.

  1. I. Lit. (class.; most freq. pass.): summersus equus voraginibus, Cic. Div. 1, 33, 73: genera summersarum beluarum, id. N. D. 2, 39, 100: salgama semper jure summersa, Col. 12, 4, 5: navis summersa, * Caes. B. C. 3, 39: ferrum summersum in undā, Ov M. 12, 279: ipsos potuit summergere ponto, Verg. A. 1, 40: quod (saxum) tumidis submersum tunditur olim Fluctibus, id. ib. 5, 125: aliquot procellis summersi paene sumus, Liv. 24, 8, 13: summersas obrue puppes, Verg. A. 1, 69: navem, Tac. A. 14, 5: omnes quondam terrae submersae profundo fuerunt, Just. 2, 1, 17.
  2. II. Trop. (post-class. and very rare): virtus summersa tenebris, Claud. lV. Cons. Hon. 221: publicatam summergere lectionem, to suppress, Arn. 3, 104.

summersĭo (subm-), ōnis, f. [summergo], a sinking, drowning, submersion (late Lat.), Arn. 5, 182; Firm. Math. 1, 2 fin.

summerso, āre, 1, v. freq. a. [summergo], to plunge repeatedly or thoroughly, Jul. Val. Rer. Gest. Alex. 3, 26.

1. summersus (subm-), a, um, Part. of summergo.

2. summersus (subm-), ūs, m. [summergo], a plunging under water, sinking (post-class.), Tert. Anim. 32 med.

* sum-mĕrus (subm-), a, um, adj., rather pure: vinum, Plaut. Stich. 1, 3, 116.

sum-mī̆grātĭo (subm-), ōnis, f., an emigration (late Lat.): e patriā, Amm. 25, 9, 1.

* summĭnĭa (subm-), ae, f. [sub-minium], a kind of garment for women, Plaut. Ep. 2, 2, 50.

summĭnistrātĭo (subm-), ōnis, f. [sumministro], a giving, furnishing, supplying, subministration (post-class.): divina incorruptibilitatis, Tert. Apol. 48 fin.

summĭnistrātor (subm-), ōris, m. [sumministro], one who aids or assists; trop., an abettor, promoter (post- Aug.): libidinum testisque, Sen. Ep. 114, 23.

* summĭnistrātus (subm-), ūs, m. [sumministro], a furnishing, supplying: exiguus cibi, Macr. S. 7, 12, § 20.

sum-mĭnistro (subm-), āvi, ātum, 1, v. a., to aid by giving; to give, furnish, afford, supply (class.).

  1. I. Lit.: pecuniam alicui, Cic. Deiot. 9, 25: tela clam, id. Cael. 9, 20: tela ad manum, Quint. 5, 7, 8: tela agentibus, id. 12, 3, 4: lapides telaque, Caes. B. G. 3, 25: frumentum, id. ib. 1, 40: auxilia hostibus nostris, id. ib. 4, 20: sauciis ac defatigatis integros equites, Auct. B. Afr. 78: puteus, qui CCC. pondo argenti Hannibali sumministravit in dies, Plin. 33, 6, 31, § 97: aquam radicibus, Col. 5, 10: pabulum, id. 6, 3, 2: tabellarios, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 13, 4: cibum, Lact. 5, 14, 17.
  2. II. Trop.: Aristoteles huic arti plurima adjumenta atque ornamenta sumministravit, Cic. Inv. 1, 5, 7: occasiones alicui, Suet. Tib. 61: timores, Sen. Ep. 104, 10: materiam eloquentiae, Tac. Or. 37: tantum animorum viriumque patriae et penatium conspectus sumministrat, Just. 6, 7, 5: spem salutis licet tardam, App. M. 11 init.

summissē, adv., v. summitto, P. a. fin.

summissim (subm-), adv. [summissus], in a low voice, gently, softly (post-Aug. and very rare): fabulantes, Suet. Aug. 74: ridere (with sensim), Gell. 17, 8, 7.

summissĭo (subm-), ōnis, f. [summitto], a letting down, lowering, dropping, sinking (Ciceron.): ex contentione vocis et summissione, Cic. Off. 1, 41, 146: (iterationes) erunt ab hac summissione orationis alienae, id. Or. 25, 85: nec elatio nec summissio, i. e. depression, id. Top. 18, 71.

1. summissus (subm-), a, um, Part. and P. a. of summitto.

2. summissus (subm-), ūs, m. [summitto], a sending to or in, introduction: ex summissu erroris ulciscitur, Tert. adv. Marc. 5, 16 med.

summĭtas, ātis, f. [summus], the highest part, height, top, summit (post-class.): placidioribus locis septem pedibus summitas vitis insurgit, Pall. 1, 6, 10; Macr. Somn. Scip. 1, 6 med.: terrae, Censor. de Die Nat. 13: deum summitatem omnium summorum obtinentem, Arn. 1, 13; App. Dogm. Plat. 2, p. 15, 7; Amm. 15, 10, 6 (not Plin. 37, 9, 37, § 118, where Jan. reads imitata).

sum-mitto (subm-), mīsi, missum, 3, v. a.

  1. I. With the force of sub predominating (mostly poet. and in post- Aug. prose; cf. subicio).
      1. 1. In gen.
        1. a. To set, put, or place under or below: singuli agni binis nutricibus submittuntur: nec quicquam subtrahi submissis expedit, Col. 7, 4, 3: vaccas tauris (for breeding), Pall. Jul. 4: vaccas in feturam, id. ib. 4, 1: equas alternis annis, id. Mart. 13, 6: canterium vitibus, Col. 4, 14, 1.
        2. b. To send or put forth below, or from below, to cause to spring forth, to send up, produce, raise: tellus submittit flores, puls forth, produces, Lucr. 1, 8: fetus (tellus), id. 1, 193: pabula pascendis equis (tellus), Luc. 4, 411: quo colores (humus formosa), Prop. 1, 2, 9; cf. poet.: non monstrum summisere Colchi Majus, did not produce (from the sowing of the dragon’s teeth), Hor. C. 4, 4, 63: summissas tendunt alta ad Capitolia dextras, upraised, Sil. 12, 640; so, palmas, id. 4, 411: manus, Sen. Oedip. 226; cf. in a Gr. construction: summissi palmas, Sil. 1, 673.
      2. 2. In partic., an econom. t. t., of animals or plants, to bring up, rear, raise; to let grow, not kill or cut off (cf. alo): arictes, Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 18; 2, 3, 4; 2, 3, 8: tauros, Verg. E. 1, 46: pullos equorum, id. G. 3, 73: vitulos, id. ib. 3, 159; Col. 7, 9, 4; Dig. 7, 1, 70: materiam vitis constituendae causā, Col. Arb. 5, 1: frutices in semen, id. ib. 11, 3, 36; 4, 31, 2; 4, 14, 3; 3, 10, 15: prata in faenum, to let grow for hay, Cato, R. R. 8, 1; Varr. R. R. 1, 49, 1; Col. 11, 2, 27.
      3. 3. Trop.
          1. (α) To put in the place of, substitute for, supersede (rare): huic vos non summittetis? hunc diutius manere patiemini? Cic. Prov. Cons. 4, 8: interim tamen, quamdiu summittantur et suppleantur capita quae demortua sunt, Dig. 7, 1, 70, § 1: necesse habebit alios fetus summittere, ib. 7, 1, 70, §§ 2 and 5.
          2. (β) To cherish, court: aetatem omnem in stipite conteres submittendo, Amm. 14, 6, 13.
    1. B. To let down, lower, sink, drop, = demittere (class. and freq., esp. in the trop. sense).
      1. 1. Lit.: se ad pedes, Liv. 45, 7: se patri ad genua, Suet. Tib. 20: latus in herbā, Ov. M. 3, 23: caput in herbā, id. ib. 3, 502; cf. verticem, id. ib. 8, 638: genu, id. ib. 4, 340; Plin. 8, 1, 1, § 3; cf.: poplitem in terrā, Ov. M. 7, 191: aures (opp. surrigere), Plin. 10, 48, 67, § 132: oculos, Ov. F. 3, 372: faciem, Suet. Calig. 36; cf. id. Aug. 79: fasces, Plin. 7, 30, 31, § 112; cf. Cic. Brut. 6, 22: capillum, to let grow, Plin. Ep. 7, 27, 14; Sen. Cons. ad Pol. 36, 5: crinem barbamque, Tac. G. 31; Suet. Caes. 67; id. Aug. 23; id. Calig. 47.
        Mid.: Tiberis aestate summittitur, sinks, falls, Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 12.
      2. 2. Trop., to lower, let down, make lower, reduce, moderate, etc.: ut ii, qui superiores sunt, summittere se debent in amicitiā: sic quodammodo inferiores extollere, condescend, Cic. Lael. 20, 72: tributim summisi me et supplicavi, id. Planc. 10, 24: summittere se in humilitatem causam dicentium, Liv. 38, 52, 2: summittere se in privatum fastigium, id. 27, 31, 6: ut in actoribus Graecis fieri videmus, saepe illum, qui est secundarum aut tertiarum partium, cum possit aliquanto clarius dicere, quam ipse primarium, multum summittere, ut ille princeps quam maxime excellat, to moderate his efforts, restrain himself, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 15, 48: inceptum frustra submitte furorem, Verg. A. 12, 832: orationem tam summittere quam attollere decet, to sink, i. e. speak in a plain style, Plin. Ep. 3, 13, 4: ut illud lene aut ascendit ad fortiora aut ad tenuiora summittitur, Quint. 12, 10, 67; cf.: quando attollenda vel summittenda sit vox, id. 1, 8, 1: (soni) cum intentione summittendā sunt temperandi, id. 11, 3, 42: (praeceptorem) summittentem se ad mensuram discentis, accommodating his instructions to the capacity, etc., id. 2, 3, 7: ad calamitates animos, to submit, bow, Liv. 23, 25: animum periculo, Brut. et Cass. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 3, 3: animos amori, to surrender, Verg. A. 4, 414: se temporibus, Sen. Tranq. An. 4, 1: verba summittere, to speak humbly, id. Ep. 11, 7; id. Vit. Beat. 17, 1: alicui se, to yield precedence, Just. 13, 2, 3: se culpae, i. e. to commit, Ov. H. 4, 151: furorem, to put down, quell, Verg. A. 12, 832: neque enim pudor sed aemuli pretia submittunt, Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 21: proinde ne submiseris te, be not disheartened, Sen. Cons. Marc. 5, 6.
        With dat.: nimis videtur submisisse temporibus se Athenodorus, yielded, Sen. Tranq. An. 4, 1: neutri fortunae se submittere, id. Ep. 66, 6: animum saevienti fortunae, Tac. A. 2, 72: ut ei aliquis se submitteret, accept his sovereignty, Just. 13, 2, 3.
  2. II. The signif. of the verb predominating, to send or despatch secretly, provide secretly: summittebat iste Timarchidem, qui moneret eos, si, etc., secretly despatched, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 28, § 69.
    Absol.: iste ad pupillae matrem summittebat, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 41, § 105: summissis consularibus viris, qui peierarent, suborned, Suet. Ner. 28 init.
    1. B. In gen., to send, send off, despatch, supply (class.): summittit cohortes equitibus praesidio, Caes. B. G. 5, 58: subsidium alicui, id. ib. 2, 6; so, subsidium, id. ib. 2, 25; 4, 26; id. B. C. 1, 43: auxilium laborantibus, id. ib. 7, 85: quoad exercitus huc summittatis, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 21, 6; Juv. 1, 36: sibi destinatum in animo esse, imperium alicui, to transfer, resign, Liv. 6, 6, 7: vinea summittit capreas non semper edules, furnishes, supplies, Hor. S. 2, 4, 43.
      Hence, summissus (subm-), a, um, P. a. (acc. to I. B.).
    1. A. Lit., let down, lowered, low (very rare): scutis super capita densatis, stantibus primis, secundis submissioribus, stooping lower, Liv. 44, 9, 6: Caelicolae Summisso humiles intrarunt vertice postes, Ov. M. 8, 638: bracchia, id. P. 3, 1, 150; Col. 6, 30, 5: capillo summissiore, hanging lower down, Suet. Tib. 68: purpura, Quint. 11, 3, 159: oculi, Plin. 11, 37, 54, § 145.
    2. B. Trop. (class. and freq.).
      1. 1. Of the voice or of speech in gen., low, soft, gentle, calm, not vehement (syn.: lenis, suppressus): et contentā voce atrociter dicere et summissa leniter, Cic. Or. 17, 56: vox (with lenis), Quint. 11, 3, 63; Ov. M. 7, 90 al.: murmur, Quint. 11, 3, 45: oratio placida, summissa, lenis, Cic. de Or. 2, 43, 183; so, oratio, Caes. B. C. 3, 19; Quint. 11, 1, 9.
        Comp.: lenior atque summissior oratio, Quint. 11, 1, 64: (sermo) miscens elata summissis, id. 11, 3, 43: actio, id. 7, 4, 27.
        Transf., of an orator: forma summissi oratoris, Cic. Or. 26, 90; so (with humilis) id. ib. 23, 76: in prooemiis plerumque summissi, Quint. 9, 4, 138.
      2. 2. Of character or disposition.
        1. a. In a bad sense, low, mean, grovelling, abject (syn. abjectus): videndum est, ne quid humile, summissum, molle, effeminatum, fractum abjectumque faciamus, Cic. Tusc. 4, 30, 64: vivere neque summissum et abjectum, neque se efferentem, id. Off. 1, 34, 124: adulatio, Quint. 11, 1, 30.
        2. b. In a good sense, humble, submissive (syn.: humilis, supplex): submissi petimus terram, Verg. A. 3, 93: causae reorum, Quint. 11, 3, 154: civitates calamitate summissiores, Hirt. B. G. 8, 31, 2: preces, Luc. 8, 594; cf.: summissa precatur, Val. Fl. 7, 476: tristem viro summissus honorem Largitur vitae, yielding, overcome, Stat. Th. 1, 662.
          The sup. seems not to occur.
          Hence, subst.: summissa, ōrum, n. (acc. to I. A. 3. supra), substitutes (sc. capita), Dig. 7, 1, 70, § 5.
      3. 2. (Sc. verba.) Calm passages, quiet sayings: summissa, qualia in epilogis sunt, Quint. 9, 4, 137.
        Adv.: sum-missē (subm-).
      1. 1. Of speech, softly, gently, calmly, not loudly or harshly: dicere, Cic. de Or. 2, 53, 215.
        Comp., Cic. de Or. 3, 55, 212 (opp. contentius): sciscitari, Petr. 105 fin.
      2. 2. Of character, calmly, quietly, modestly, humbly, submissively: alicui summisse supplicare, Cic. Planc. 5, 12: scribere alicui, Tac. H. 3, 9 fin.: loqui (opp. aspere), Quint. 6, 5, 5: agere (opp. minanter), Ov. A. A. 3, 582.
        Comp.: summissius se gerere, Cic. Off. 1, 26, 90: dolere, Claud. B. Gild. 247.
        No sup.

Summoenĭum (Subm-), ii, n. [submoenia], a place in Rome, probably near the walls, the resort of vile characters, Mart. 1, 35, 6.
Hence, Summoenĭānus, a, um, adj., of or belonging to Summœnium: uxores, Mart. 3, 82, 2; cf. buccae, id. 11, 61, 2.

summŏlestē (subm-), adv., v. summolestus.

sum-mŏlestus (subm-), a, um, adj., somewhat troublesome or vexatious (very rare): illud est mihi submolestum, quod, etc., Cic. Att. 16, 4, 4.
Adv.: summŏle-stē, with some vexation: aliquid ferre, Cic. Att. 5, 21, 1.

sum-mŏnĕo (subm-), ŭi, 2, v. n., to remind privily, give a hint (very rare): summonuit me Parmeno, quod, etc., Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 22: patres salutavit nominatim singulos, nullo summonente, Suet. Aug. 53.

* sum-monstro (subm-), āre, v. a., to show privately: responsa, Arn. 3, 143 (al. subministrat).

summŏpĕre, v. summus, under superus.

* sum-mōrōsus (subm-), a, um, adj., somewhat peerish or morose: me illa valde movent stomachosa et quasi summorosa ridicula, Cic. de Or. 2, 69, 279.

* summō-tĕnus, adv., up to the top: summotenus florescentibus floribus, App. Herb. 75.

* summōtor (subm-), ōris, m. [summoveo], one who puts aside or removes (in order to make room), a clearer of a space: summotor aditūs, praeco, accensus, i. e. the lictor, Liv. 45, 29, 2.

summōtus (subm-), a, um, Part. of summoveo.

sum-mŏvĕo (subm-), mōvi, mōtum, 2 (sync. form of the pluperf. subj. summosses, Hor. S. 1, 9, 48), v. a., to send or drive off or away, to remove (freq. and class.; cf.: repello, amolior).

  1. I. Lit.
    1. A. In gen.: hostes a portā, Caes. B. G. 7, 50: hostes ex muro ac turribus, id. B. C. 2, 11: hostes ex agro Romano trans Anienem, Liv. 4, 17, 11: hostium lembos statione, id. 45, 10, 2: recusantes advocatos, Cic. Quint. 8, 31: quam (Academiam) summovere non audeo, id. Leg. 1, 13, 39: summotā contione, id. Fl. 7, 15; cf.: summoto populo, Liv. 26, 38, 8: submotis velut in aliam insulam hostibus, Tac. Agr. 23: maris litora, to remove, extend (by moles), Hor. C. 2, 18, 21: informes hiemes, id. ib. 2, 10, 17: regnum ipsum, Plin. Pan. 55, 7: piratas mari, Flor. 4, 6: ut legati juberentur, summoto eo (Caesare) milites alloqui, Vell. 2, 62, 5.
      Poet.: hic spelunca fuit vasto submota reccssu (sc. ex oculis), Verg. A. 8, 193.
      Of things: ubi Alpes Germaniam ab Italiā summovent, separate, Plin. 3, 19, 23, § 132: silva Phoebeos summovet ictus, wards off, Ov. M. 5, 389.
    2. B. In partic.
      1. 1. Of a lictor, to clear away, remove people standing in the way, to make room: i, lictor, summove turbam, Liv. 3, 48, 3; 2, 56, 10; 4, 50, 5; 25, 3, 16; 45, 7, 4: nemo submovebatur, Plin. Pan. 76, 8.
        Impers. pass.: cui summovetur, Sen. Ep. 94, 60: sederunt in tribunali, lictor apparuit, summoto incesserunt, after room had been made, Liv. 28, 27, 15: incedit (bos) submoto, Plin. 8, 46, 71, § 185: summoto aditus, access after the lictors had made room, id. 45, 29, 2 Weissenb. ad loc.; 45, 7, 4; Inscr. Fratr. Arv. ap. Marin. 25; 32; 35.
        1. b. Transf., to remove, dispel, etc.: non gazae neque consularis Summovet lictor miseros tumultus Mentis et curas, Hor. C. 2, 16, 10; cf.: submove vitia, Sen. Ep. 94, 60.
      2. 2. In econom. lang., to clear off, sell off stock: oves, Col. 7, 3, 14: agnos, id. 7, 4, 3.
  2. II. Trop., to put or keep away, to withdraw, withhold, remove (syn. sepono): aliquem a re publicā, from civil affairs, Cic. Fragm. ap. Quint. 11, 1, 85: aliquem administratione reipublicae, Suet. Caes. 16; cf. id. ib. 28: reges a bello, Liv. 45, 23: sermonem a prooemio, Quint. 4, 1, 63: magnitudine poenae maleficio summoveri, Cic. Rosc. Am. 25, 70: summotus pudor, Hor. Epod. 11, 18: scrupulum, Col. 4, 29, 3: summovendum est utrumque ambitionis genus, Quint. 12, 7, 6: hiemem tecto, Luc. 2, 385.
    1. B. Esp., to banish: ad Histrum, Ov. P. 3, 4, 91: patriā, id. ib. 4, 16, 47: aliquem urbe et Italiā, Suet. Aug. 45 fin.: summotum defendis amicum, Ov. Tr. 3, 4, 41.

summŭla, ae, f. dim. [summa], a small sum: summulas minutas distribuit servis, Sen. Ep. 77, 8; App. M. 11, p. 271, 32; Prud. στεφ. 2, 131.

sum-multĭplex (subm-), plĭcis, adj., contained many times in another number, Boëth. Inst. Arithm. 1, 22.

sum-murmŭro (subm-), āvi, 1, v. a., to murmur a little or in secrēt (late Lat.), Aug. Conf. 6, 9; 8, 11.

summus, a, um, adj., v. superus.

summussi = murmuratores (murmurers). Naevius: odi, inquit, summussos; proinde aperte dice, quid sit, Fest. pp. 298 and 299 Müll. (Trag. Rel. p. 12 Rib.) [submusso].

* sum-mūto (subm-), āre, v. a., to change, interchange, substitute one thing for another: hanc ὑπαλλαγὴν rhetores, quia quasi summutantur verba pro verbis, μετωνυμίαν grammatici vocant, quod nomina transferuntur, Cic. Or. 27, 93.

sŭpĕrus, a, um (ante-class. collat. form of the nom. sing. sŭpĕr in two passages: super inferque vicinus, Cato, R. R. 149, 1: totus super ignis, Lucr. 1, 649; gen. plur. in signif. I. B. 1. infra, superūm, Verg. A. 1, 4; Ov. M. 1, 251 et saep.), adj. [super].

  1. I. Posit.
    1. A. Adj.
      1. 1. In gen., that is above, upper, higher: inferus an superus tibi fert deus funera, Liv. And. ap. Prisc. p. 606 P.: at ita me di deaeque superi atque inferi et medioxumi, Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 36: omnes di deaeque superi, inferi, Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 6: ad superos deos potius quam ad inferos pervenisse, Cic. Lael. 3, 12: limen superum inferumque salve, Plaut. Merc. 5, 1, 1: portae Phrygiae limen, id. Bacch. 4, 9, 31; 4, 9, 63; Novat. ap. Non. p. 336, 13 (Com. Rel. v. 49 Rib.): carmine di superi placantur, carmine manes, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 138: di, id. C. 1, 1, 30; 4, 7, 18: superis deorum Gratus et imis, id. ib. 1, 10, 19: ut omnia supera, infera, prima, ultima, media videremus, Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 64: spectatores superarum rerum atque caelestium, id. N. D. 2, 56, 140: omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes, Verg. A. 6, 788: supera ad convexa, to heaven, id. ib. 6, 241 (Rib. super); 6, 750; 10, 251: cum superum lumen nox intempesta teneret, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 14 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.): lumen, Lucr. 6, 856: templum superi Jovis, i. e. of the Capitoline Jupiter (opp. Juppiter inferus, i. e. Pluto), Cat. 55, 5; Sen. Herc. Fur. 48: domus deorum, Ov. M. 4, 735: mare superum, the upper, i. e. the Adriatic and Ionian Sea (opp. mare inferum, the lower or Etruscan Sea), Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 11; Cic. de Or. 3, 19, 69; id. Att. 9, 3, 1; Liv. 41, 1, 3; Mel. 2, 4, 1; Plin. 3, 5, 10, § 44; Suet. Caes. 34; 44; so without mare (colloq.): iter ad superum, Cic. Att. 9, 5, 1.
        Adverb.: de supero, quom huc accesserit, from above, Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 18; so, ex supero, Lucr. 2, 227; 2, 241; 2, 248.
      2. 2. In partic., upper, i. e. of the upper regions or upper world (opp. the lower regions): superā de parte, i. e. of the earth, Lucr. 6, 855: superas evadere ad auras, Verg. A. 6, 128: superum ad lumen ire, id. ib. 6, 680: aurae, Ov. M. 5, 641: orae, Verg. A. 2, 91: limen, id. ib. 6, 680.
    2. B. Substt.
      1. 1. Sŭpĕri, ōrum, m.
          1. (α) They who are above (opp. inferi, those in the dungeon), Plaut. Aul. 2, 7, 6: multum fleti ad superos, i. e. those living on earth, Verg. A. 6, 481: (Pompeius) Quam apud superos habuerat magnitudinem, illibatam detulisset ad Inferos, the inhabitants of the upper world, Vell. 2, 48, 2; cf.: ut oblitos superum paterere dolores, Val. Fl. 1, 792: si nunc redire posset ad superos pater, Poët. ap. Charis. 5, p. 252: epistula ad superos scripta, i. e. to the survivors, Plin. 2, 109, 112, § 248.
          2. (β) (Sc. di.) The gods above, the celestial deities: quae Superi Manesque dabant, Verg. A. 10, 34: aspiciunt Superi mortalia, Ov. M. 13, 70: o Superi! id. ib. 1, 196; 14, 729; pro Superi, id. Tr. 1, 2, 59: terris jactatus et alto Vi Superum, Verg. A. 1, 4: illa propago Contemptrix Superum, Ov. M. 1, 161: exemplo Superorum, id. Tr. 4, 4, 19; so, Superorum, id. P. 1, 1, 43: postquam res Asiae Priamique evertere gentem Immeritam visum Superis, Verg. A. 3, 2: scilicet is Superis labor est, id. ib. 4, 379; Hor. C. 1, 6, 16: superis deorum Gratus et imis, id. ib. 1, 10, 19: flectere Superos, Verg. A. 7, 312: te per Superosoro, id. ib. 2, 141 et saep.
      2. 2. sŭpĕra, ōrum, n.
          1. (α) The heavenly bodies: Hicetas caelum, solem, lunam, stellas, supera denique omnia stare censet, Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; cf.: cogitantes supera atque caelestia, haec nostra contemnimus, id. ib. 2, 41, 127: di, quibus est potestas motūs superūm atque inferūm, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 25, 38 (Trag. Rel. v. 163 Vahl.).
          2. (β) Higher places (sc. loca): supera semper petunt, tend upwards, Cic. Tusc. 1, 18, 42: (Alecto) Cocyti petit sedem, supera ardua relinquens, the upper world, Verg. A. 7, 562.
  2. II. Comp.: sŭpĕrĭor, ĭus.
    1. A. Lit., of place, higher, upper: inferiore omni spatio vacuo relicto, superiorem partem collis castris compleverant, Caes. B. G. 7, 46: dejectus quī potest esse quisquam, nisi in inferiorem locum de superiore motus? Cic. Caecin. 18, 50: in superiore qui habito cenaculo, Plaut. Am. 3, 1, 3: tota domus superior vacat, the upper part of, Cic. Att. 12, 10: superior accumbere, Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 42: de loco superiore dicere, i. e. from the tribunal, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 42, § 102: agere, i. e. from the rostra, id. ib. 2, 1, 5, § 14; and in gen. of the position of the speaker: multos et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos, id. Fam. 3, 8, 2: sive ex inferiore loco sive ex aequo sive ex superiore loquitur, id. de Or. 3, 6, 23: ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis praeliabantur, from a height or eminence, Caes. B. G. 2, 23; so, ex loco superiore, id. ib. 3, 4: loca, id. ib. 1, 10, 4; 3, 3, 2: ex superioribus locis in planitiem descendere, id. B. C. 3, 98: qui in superiore acie constiterant, id. B. G. 1, 24: ex superiore et ex inferiore scripturā docendum, i. e. what goes before and after, the context, Cic. Inv. 2, 40, 117; cf.: posteriori superius non jungitur, id. Ac. 2, 14, 44.
    2. B. Trop.
      1. 1. Of time or order of succession, former, past, previous, preceding: superiores solis defectiones, Cic. Rep. 1, 16, 25: quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris, id. Cat. 1, 1, 1: refecto ponte, quem superioribus diebus hostes resciderant, Caes. B. G. 7, 58: superioribus aestivis, Hirt. B. G. 8, 46: superioribus temporibus, Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 1: tempus (opp. posterius), id. Dom. 37, 99: tempora (opp. inferiora), Suet. Claud. 41: annus, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 18, § 47: anno superiore, id. Har. Resp. 8, 15: superioris anni acta, Suet. Caes. 23: in superiore vitā, Cic. Sen. 8, 26: milites superioribus proeliis exercitati, Caes. B. G. 2, 20: testimonium conveniens superiori facto, Hirt. B. G. 8, 53: superius facinus novo scelere vincere, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 44, § 116: superioris more crudelitatis uti, Nep. Thras. 3, 1: superius genus, mentioned previously, Plin. 13, 25, 48, § 146: nuptiae, former marriage, Cic. Clu. 6, 15: vir, first husband, id. Caecin. 6, 17.
        1. b. Esp., of age, time of life, etc., older, elder, senior, more advanced, former: omnis juventus omnesque superioris aetatis, Caes. B. C. 2, 5: aetate superiores, Varr. R. R. 2, 10, 1: superior Africanus, the Elder, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 10, § 25; id. Off. 1, 33, 121: Dionysius, id. ib. 2, 7, 25; Nep. Dion, 1, 1; cf.: quid est aetas hominis, nisi memoria rerum veterum cum superiorum aetate contexitur, Cic. Or. 34, 120.
      2. 2. Of strength or success in battle or any contest, victorious, conquering, stronger, superior: Caesar quod hostes equitatu superiores esse intellegebat, Caes. B. G. 7, 65: numero superiores, Hirt. B. G. 8, 12: hoc ipso fiunt superiores, quod nullum acceperant detrimentum, id. ib. 8, 19: se quo impudentius egerit, hoc superiorem discessurum, Cic. Caecin. 1, 2: semper discessit superior, Nep. Hann. 1, 2: si primo proelio Catilina superior discessisset, Sall. C. 39, 4: ut nostri omnibus partibus superiores fuerint, Caes. B. G. 5, 15: multo superiores bello esse, Nep. Alcib. 4, 7: superiorem Appium in causā fecit, Liv. 5, 7, 1.
      3. 3. Of quality, condition, number, etc., higher, more distinguished, greater, superior.
          1. (α) With abl. respect.: pecuniis superiores, Cic. Rep. 2, 34, 59: loco, fortunā, famā superiores, id. Lael. 25, 94: habes neminem honoris gradu superiorem, id. Fam. 2, 18, 2: ordine, id. ib. 13, 5, 2: facilitate et humanitate superior, id. Off. 1, 26, 90: si superior ceteris rebus esses, id. Div. in Caecil. 19, 61.
          2. (β) Absol.: ut ii, qui superiores sunt, submittere se debent in amicitiā, sic quodam modo inferiores extollere, Cic. Lael. 20, 72; cf. id. ib. 20, 71: ut quanto superiores sumus, tanto nos geramus summissius, id. Off. 1, 26, 90: invident homines maxime paribus aut inferioribussed etiam superioribus invidetur, id. de Or. 2, 52, 209: premendoque superiorem sese extollebat, Liv. 22, 12, 12: cui omnem honorem, ut superiori habuit, Vell. 2, 101, 1.
  3. III. Sup., in three forms, ‡ superrimus, supremus, and summus.
    1. A.sŭperrĭ-mus, assumed as orig. form of supremus by Varr. L. L. 7, § 51 Müll.; Charis. p. 130 P.
    2. B. sū̆prēmus, a, um, highest, loftiest, topmost.
      1. 1. Lit. (only poet.; cf. summus, C. 1.): montesque sŭpremos Silvifragis vexat flabris, the highest points, the tops, summits, Lucr. 1, 274; so, montes, Verg. G. 4, 460; Hor. Epod. 17, 68: rupes, Sen. Oedip. 95: arx, Claud. III. Cons. Hon. 167; cf.: supremae Tethyos unda, Mart. Spect. 3, 6.
      2. 2. Trop.
        1. a. Of time or order of succession, last, latest, extreme, final, = ultimus (class.).
          1. (α) In gen.: SOL OCCASVS SVPREMA TEMPESTAS ESTO, XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 17, 2, 10.
            Hence, as subst.: suprēma, ae, f. (sc. tempestas), the last part of the day, the hour of sunset: suprema summum diei; hoc tempus duodecim Tabulae dicunt occasum esse solis; sed postea lex praetoria id quoque tempus jubet esse supremum, quo praeco in comitio supremam pronuntiavit populo, Varr. L. L. 6, § 5 Müll.; cf. Censor. de Die Nat. 24; Plin. 7, 60, 60, § 212: quae (urbs), quia postrema coaedificata est, Neapolis nominatur, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119: supremo te sole domi manebo, at sunset, Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 3: jubare exorto jam nocte supremā, Col. poët. 10, 294: in te suprema salus, last hope, Verg. A. 12, 653: supremam bellis imposuisse manum, the last or finishing hand, Ov. R. Am. 114.suprēmum, adverb., for the last time: quae mihi tunc primum, tunc est conspecta supremum, Ov. M. 12, 526.
          2. (β) In partic., with regard to the close of life, last, closing, dying: supremo vitae die, Cic. Tusc. 1, 29, 71; id. Sen. 21, 78; id. Mur. 36, 75: dies, id. Phil. 1, 14, 34; Hor. C. 1, 13, 20; id. Ep. 1, 4, 13: hora, Tib. 1, 1, 59: tempus, Hor. S. 1, 1, 98; Cat. 64, 151: incestum pontifices supremo supplicio sanciunto, i. e. the penalty of death, Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22: mors, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 173: finis, id. ib. 2, 1, 12: iter, id. C. 2, 17, 11: lumen, Verg. A. 6, 735: sociamque tori vocat ore supremo, with his dying mouth, dying breath, Ov. M. 8, 521; so, ore, id. Tr. 3, 3, 87: haec digressu dicta supremo Fundebat, Verg. A. 8, 583: Nero in supremā irā duos calices crystallinos fregit, in his last agony, Plin. 37, 2, 10, § 29; supremis suis annis, in his last years, id. 23, 1, 27, § 58: suprema ejus cura, id. 7, 45, 46, § 150: spoliatus illius supremi diei celebritate, Cic. Mil. 32, 86: honor, the last honors, i. e. funeral rites or ceremonies, Verg. A. 11, 61: funera, Ov. M. 3, 137: oscula, id. ib. 6, 278: tori, i. e. biers, id. F. 6, 668: ignis, id. Am. 1, 15, 41: ignes, id. M. 2, 620; 13, 583: officia, Tac. A. 5, 2; Petr. 112, 1: judicia hominum, a last will or testament, Quint. 6, 3, 92; Plin. Ep. 7, 20, 7; 7, 31, 5; so, tabulae, Mart. 5, 33, 1; 5, 41, 1: tituli, i. e. an epitaph, id. ib. 9, 19, 3.
            So of cities, etc.: Troiae sorte supremā, Verg. A. 5, 190: dies regnis, Ov. F. 2, 852.suprēmum and suprēmō, adverb.: animam sepulcro Condimus, et magnā supremum voce ciemus, for the last time, for a last farewell, Verg. A. 3, 68; Plin. 11, 37, 55, § 150; Tac. H. 4, 14; Ov. M. 12, 526: anima exitura supremo, Plin. 11, 53, 115, § 277.
            Substt.
      1. 1. sŭ-prēmum, i, n., the last moment, end (very rare): ventum ad supremum est, Verg. A. 12, 803.
      2. 2. suprēma, ōrum, n.
          1. (α) The last moments, the close of life, death: ut me in supremis consolatus est! Quint. 6, prooem. § 11; Tac. A. 6, 50; 12, 66; cf.: statua Herculis sentiens suprema tunicae, the last agonies caused by it, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 93: circa suprema Neronis, the time of his death, id. 16, 44, 86, § 236; 7, 3, 3, § 33.
          2. (β) The last honors paid to the dead, funeral rites or ceremonies, a funeral: supremis divi Augusti, Plin. 7, 3, 3, § 33; 16, 44, 86, § 236; Tac. A. 1, 61; 3, 49; 4, 44; id. H. 4, 59; 4, 45: suprema ferre (sc. munera), Verg. A. 6, 213; cf. id. ib. 11, 25 al.
          3. (γ) A last will, testament: nihil primo senatus die agi passus, nisi de supremis Augusti, Tac. A. 1, 8: miles in supremis ordinandis ignarus uxorem esse praegnantem, etc., Dig. 29, 1, 36, § 2.
          4. (δ) The relics, remains of a burned corpse, the ashes, = reliquiae, Amm. 25, 9, 12; Sol. 1 med.
        1. b. Of degree or rank, the highest, greatest, most exalted, supreme: multa, quae appellatur suprema, instituta in singulos duarum ovium, triginta boumultra quam (numerum) multam dicere in singulos jus non est, et propterea suprema appellatur, id est, summa et maxima, Gell. 11, 1, 2 sq.: macies, Verg. A. 3, 590: Juppiter supreme, Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 55; id. Capt. 2, 3, 66; 5, 2, 23; id. Ps. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 42: Junonis supremus conjunx, Poët. ap. Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 115: med antidhac Supremum habuisti com item consiliis tuis, most intimate, Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 15.
    3. C. summus, a, um [from sup-ĭmus, sup-mus], uppermost, highest, topmost; the top of, highest part of (cf. Roby, Gram. 2, § 1295).
      1. 1. Lit. (class., while supremus is mostly poet.): summum oportet olfactare vestimentum muliebre, the top, outside of, Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 56: Galli summa arcis adorti Moenia, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 1, 4 (Ann. v. 169 Vahl.): Thyestes summis saxis fixus, id. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 107 (Trag. v. 413 ib.): montibus summis, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 71 Müll. (Epigr. v. 43 ib.): summum jugum montis, Caes. B. G. 1, 21: summus mons, the top of, id. ib. 1, 22: feriunt summos fulmina montes, the mountain tops, Hor. C. 2, 10, 11; cf.: in summo montis vertice, Poët. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 48: locus castrorum, Caes. B. G. 2, 23: in summā sacrā viā, on the highest part of, Cic. Planc. 7, 17; cf. id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119: in summā columnā conlocare, id. Div. 1, 24, 48: quam (urbem) ad summum theatrum, id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119: Janus summus ab imo, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 54: ad aquam summam appropinquare, Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 64: mento summam aquam attingens enectus siti, Poët. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10: in aquā summā natare, the top, surface of, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 33: apud summum puteum, id. Mil. 4, 4, 16: per summa volare aequora, Verg. A. 5, 819: summa cacumina linquunt, id. ib. 6, 678: mari summo, id. ib. 1, 110: prospexi Italiam summā ab undā, id. ib. 6, 357: summaque per galeam delibans oscula, id. ib. 12, 434: amphoras complures complet plumbo, summas operit auro, Nep. Hann. 9, 3: summa procul villarum culmina fumant, Verg. E. 1, 83: summam cutem novaculā decerpito, Col. 12, 56, 1.
        Of position, place, at table: summus ego (in triclinio) et prope me Viscus Thurinus et infra Varius, etc., I was highest, I reclined at the top, Hor. S. 2, 8, 20.
        Hence, subst.: summus, i, m., he who sits in the highest place, at the head of the table: standum est in lecto, si quid de summo petas, Plaut. Men. 1, 1, 27: is sermo, qui more majorum a summo adhibetur in poculis, by the head of the table, i. e. by the president of the feast, Cic. Sen. 14, 46; so, a summo dare (bibere), Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; Pers. 5, 1, 19.
        1. b. summum, i, n., the top, surface; the highest place, the head of the table, etc.: ab ejus (frontis) summo, sicut palmae, rami quam late diffunduntur, Caes. B. G. 6, 26: qui demersi sunt in aquāsi non longe absunt a summo, Cic. Fin. 3, 14, 48: leviter a summo inflexum bacillum, id. Div. 1, 17, 30: igitur discubuere . . . in summo Antonius, Sall. H. 3, 4 Dietsch: puteos ac potius fontes habet: sunt enim in summo, Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 25: nuces mersit in vinum et sive in summum redierant, sive subsederant, etc., Petr. 137 fin.: oratori summa riguerunt, the extremities of his body, Sen. Ira, 2, 3, 3.
          In mal. part.: summa petere, Mart. 11, 46, 6; Auct. Priap. 76.
      2. 2. Transf., of the voice: jubeo te salvere voce summā, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 30; cf.: citaret Io Bacche! modo summā Voce, modo, etc., at the top of his voice, Hor. S. 1, 3, 7: vox (opp. ima), Quint. 11, 3, 15: summā voce versus multos uno spiritu pronuntiare, Cic. de Or. 1, 61, 261; cf.: summo haec clamore, Plaut. Merc. prol. 59.
        Adverb.: summum, at the utmost or farthest: exspectabam hodie, aut summum cras, Cic. Att. 13, 21, 2: bis, terve summum, id. Fam. 2, 1, 1: triduo aut summum quatriduo, id. Mil. 9, 26; cf. Liv. 21, 35, and 31, 42 Drak.
      3. 2. Trop.
        1. a. Of time or order of succession, last, latest, final (rare but class.): haec est praestituta summa argento dies, Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 140; so, venit summa dies, Verg. A. 2, 324: ad summam senectutem jactari, quam, etc., Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1: vixit ad summam senectutem, to extreme old age, id. Fragm. ap. Non. 401, 31: cum esset summā senectute, id. Phil. 8, 10, 31: in fluvium primi cecidere, in corpora summi, Luc. 2, 211: summo carmine, at the end, Hor. C. 3, 28, 13: eadem in argumentis ratio est, ut potentissima prima et summa ponantur, the first and the last, at the beginning and the end, Quint. 6, 4, 22; cf. neutr. absol.: Celsus putat, primo firmum aliquod (argumentum) esse ponendum, summo firmissimum, imbecilliora medio; quia et initio movendus sit judex et summo impellendus, at the last, at the close, id. 7, 1, 10.
          Adverb.: summum, for the last time: nunc ego te infelix summum teneoque tuorque, Albin. 1, 137.
        2. b. Of rank, etc., highest, greatest, first, supreme, best, utmost, extreme; most distinguished, excellent, or noble; most important, weighty, or critical, etc. (so most freq. in prose and poetry): summā nituntur vi, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 168 Vahl.): bellum gerentes summum summā industriā, id. ap. Non. p. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 104 ib.): summi puerorum amores, Cic. Lael. 10, 33: spes civium, id. ib. 3, 11: fides, constantia justitiaque, id. ib. 7, 25: in amore summo summāque inopiā, Caec. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 72: qui in virtute summum bonum ponunt, id. ib. 6, 20: non agam summo jure tecum, id. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4: tres fratres summo loco nati, id. Fam. 2, 18, 2: qui summo magistratui praeerat, Caes. B. G. 1, 16: concedunt in uno Cn. Pompeio summa esse omnia, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 51: quae (vitia) summo opere vitare oportebit, id. Inv. 1, 18, 26: turpitudo, id. Lael. 17, 61: summum in cruciatum se venire, Caes. B. G. 1, 31: scelus, Sall. C. 12, 5: hiems, the depth of winter, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86; id. Fam. 13, 60, 2: cum aestas summa esse coeperat, id. Verr. 2, 5, 12, § 29; 2, 5, 31, § 80: ut summi virtute et animo praeessent imbecillioribus, id. Rep. 1, 34, 51: summi ex Graeciā sapientissimique homines, id. ib. 1, 22, 36; cf.: summi homines ac summis ingeniis praediti, id. de Or. 1, 2, 6: optimi et summi viri diligentia, id. Rep. 1, 35, 54: cum par habetur honos summis et infimis id. ib. 1, 34, 53: He. Quo honore’st illic? Ph. Summo atque ab summis viris, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 29: summus Juppiter, id. Cist. 2, 1, 40: ubi summus imperator non adest ad exercitum, id. Am. 1, 2, 6: miles summi inperatoris, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: deum qui non summum putet (amorem), Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68: amicus summus, the best friend, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8 (9), 60; 1, 1, 1; id. And. 5, 6, 6; cf. absol.: nam is nostro Simulo fuit summus, id. Ad. 3, 2, 54; so id. Eun. 2, 2, 40.
          Poet. in neutr. plur.: summa ducum Atrides, the chief, Ov. Am. 1, 9, 37; cf. Lucr. 1, 86: summo rei publicae tempore, at a most important period, most critical juncture, Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 46: in summo et periculosissimo rei publicae tempore, id. Fl. 3, 6; cf.: summa salus rei publicae, id. Cat. 1, 5, 11: quod summa res publica in hujus periculo tentatur, the highest welfare of the State, the common welfare, the good of the State, the whole State or commonwealth, id. Rosc. Am. 51, 148; so, res publica, id. Planc. 27, 66; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 28; id. Cat. 1, 6, 14; 3, 6, 13; id. Inv. 1, 16, 23; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 2: ad summam rem publicam, Liv. 33, 45, 4 al.: quo res summa loco, Panthu? the general cause, Verg. A. 2, 322: mene igitur socium summis adjungere rebus, Nise, fugis? in these enterprises of highest moment, etc., id. ib. 9, 199; esp.: summum jus, a right pushed to an extreme: non agam summo jure tecum, deal exactingly, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4; cf.: exsistunt etiam saepe injuriae calumniā quādam et nimis callidā juris interpretatione; ex quo illud summum jus summa injuria factum est, jam tritum sermone proverbium, id. Off. 1, 10, 33.
          Hence, summē, adv., in the highest degree, most highly or greatly, extremely: quod me sollicitare summe solet, Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 295: cupere aliquid, id. Quint. 21, 69; Caes. B. C. 3, 15: contendere, Cic. Quint. 24, 77: studere, Mat. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 2: diffidere, Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 2: admirari, Quint. 10, 1, 70: summe jucundum, Cic. Fam. 13, 18, 2: officiosi, id. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63: summe disertus vir, Quint. 12, 1, 23: summe munitus locus, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 31: summe haec omnia mihi videntur esse laudanda, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 17, 57: mei summe observantissimus, Plin. Ep. 10, 26 (11), 1.