Lewis & Short

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absŏlūtus, a, um, P. a., from

ab-solvo, vi, ūtum, 3, v. a., to loosen from, to make loose, set free, detach, untie (usu. trop., the fig. being derived from fetters, qs. a vinculis solvere, like vinculis exsolvere, Plaut. Truc. 3, 4, 10).

  1. I. Lit. (so very rare): canem ante tempus, Amm. 29, 3: asinum, App. M. 6, p. 184; cf.: cum nodo cervicis absolutum, id. ib. 9, p. 231: valvas stabuli, i. e. to open, id. ib. 1, p. 108 fin.: absoluta lingua (ranarum) a gutture, loosed, Plin. 11, 37, 65, § 172.
  2. II. Trop.
    1. A. To release from a long story, to let one off quickly: Paucis absolvit, ne moraret diutius, Pac. ap. Diom. p. 395 P. (Trag. Rel. p. 98 Rib.); so, te absolvam brevi, Plaut. Ep. 3, 4, 30.
    2. B. To dismiss by paying, to pay off: absolve hunc vomitumquattuor quadraginta illi debentur minae, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 120; so Ter. Ad. 2, 4, 13 and 18.
      Hence, in gen., to dismiss, to release: jam hosce absolutos censeas, Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 43; and ironic., id. Capt. 3, 5, 73.
    3. C. To free from (Ciceronian): ut nec Roscium stipulatione alliget, neque a Fannio judicio se absolvat, extricate or free himself from a lawsuit, Cic. Rosc. Com. 12: longo bello, Tac. A. 4, 23: caede hostis se absolvere, to absolve or clear one’s self by murdering an enemy, id. G. 31.
      With gen.: tutelae, Dig. 4, 8, 3; hence,
    4. D. In judicial lang., t. t., to absolve from a charge, to acquit, declare innocent; constr. absol., with abl., gen., or de (Zumpt, § 446; Rudd. 2, 164 sq.): bis absolutus, Cic. Pis. 39: regni suspicione, Liv. 2, 8: judex absolvit injuriarum eum, Auct. ad Her. 2, 13; so Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 29 al.: de praevaricatione absolutus, id. Q. Fr. 2, 16.
      In Verr. 2, 2, 8, § 22: hic (Dionem) Veneri absolvit, sibi condemnat, are dativi commodi: from the obligation to Venus he absolves him, but condemns him to discharge that to himself (Verres).
      With an abstract noun: fidem absolvit, he acquitted them of their fidelity (to Otho), pardoned it, Tac. H. 2, 60.
    5. E. In technical lang., to bring a work to a close, to complete, finish (without denoting intrinsic excellence, like perficere; the fig. is prob. derived from detaching a finished web from the loom; cf.: rem dissolutam divulsamque, Cic. de Or. 1, 42, 188).
      So of the sacrificial cake: liba absoluta (as taken from the pan), ready, Varr. R. R. 2, 8; but esp. freq. in Cic.: ut pictor nemo esset inventus, qui Coae Veneris eam partem, quam Apelles inchoatam reliquisset, absolveret, Cic. Off. 3, 2 (cf. Suet. Claud. 3); id. Leg. 1, 3, 9; id. Att. 12, 45; cf. id. Fin. 2, 32, 105; id. Fam. 1, 9, 4; id. Att. 13, 19 al.
      So in Sallust repeatedly, both with acc. and de, of an historical statement, to bring to a conclusion, to relate: cetera quam paucissumis absolvam, J. 17, 2: multa paucis, Cic. Fragm. Hist. 1, n. 2: de Catilinae conjuratione paucis absolvam, id. Cat. 4, 3; cf.: nunc locorum situm, quantum ratio sinit, absolvam, Amm. 23, 6.
      Hence, absŏlūtus, a, um, P. a., brought to a conclusion, finished, ended, complete (cf. absolvo, E.).
    1. A. In gen.: nec appellatur vita beata nisi confecta atque absoluta, when not completed and concluded, Cic. Fin. 2, 27, 87; cf.: perfecte absolutus, id. ib. 4, 7, 18; and: absolutus et perfectus per se, id. Part. Or. 26, 94 al.
      Comp., Quint. 1, 1, 37.
      Sup., Auct. ad Her. 2, 18, 28; Plin. 35, 10, 36, § 74; Tac. Or. 5 al.
    2. B. Esp.
      1. 1. In rhet. lang., unrestricted, unconditional, absolute: hoc mihi videor videre, esse quasdam cum adjunctione necessitudines, quasdam simplices et absolutas, Cic. Inv. 2, 57, 170.
      2. 2. In gram.
        1. a. Nomen absolutum, which gives a complete sense without any thing annexed, e. g.: deus, Prisc. p. 581 P.
        2. b. Verbum absolutum, in Prisc. p. 795 P., that has no case with it; in Diom. p. 333 P., opp. inchoativum.
        3. c. Adjectivum absolutum, which stands in the positive, Quint. 9, 3, 19.
          Adv.: absŏlūtē, fully, perfectly, completely (syn. perfecte), distinctly, unrestrictedly, absolutely, Cic. Tusc. 4, 17, 38; 5, 18, 53; id. Fin. 3, 7, 26; id. Top. 8, 34 al.
          Comp., Macr. Somn. Scip. 2, 15.