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āla, ae, f. [for axla, contr. from axilla, Cic. Or. 45, 153; cf. ἄγχος = ὦμος (Hesych.) = shoulder = O. H. Germ. Ahsala; Germ. Achsel].
- I. Lit., a wing, as of a bird: galli plausu premunt alas, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 2, 26; Verg. A. 3, 226 al.: Me. Vox mihi ad aurīs advolavit. So. Ne ego homo infelix fui, qui non alas intervelli, that I did not pluck off its wings, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 170.
Poet., of the gods: Mors atris circumvolat alis, Hor. S. 2, 1, 58: volucris Fati Tardavit alas, id. C. 2, 17, 25: bibulae Cupidinis alae, Ov. A. A. 1, 233: furvis circumdatus alis Somnus, Tib. 2, 1, 89: me jocundis Sopor impulit alis, Prop. 1, 3, 45: Madidis Notus evolat alis, Ov. M. 1, 264.
Of sails: velorum pandimus alas, Verg. A. 3, 520.
Of oars: classis centenis remiget alis, Prop. 4, 6, 47: remigium alarum, Verg. A. 1, 301 (cf. Hom. Od. 11, 125); so inversely remi is used of wings: super fluctus alarum insistere remis, Ov. M. 5, 558 (cf. πτεροῖς ἐρέσσει, Eur. Iphig. Taur. 289; Aeschyl. Agam. 52; and cf. Lucr. 6, 743).
Of wind and lightning: Nisus Emicat et ventis et fulminis ocior alis, Verg. A. 5, 319 al.
- II. Transf.
- A. In man, the upper and under part of the arm, where it unites with the shoulder; the armpit, Liv. 9, 41; 30, 34: aliquid sub alā portare, Hor. Ep. 1, 13, 12: hirquinae, Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 51: hirsutae, Hor. Epod. 12, 5: halitus oris et alarum vitia, Plin. 21, 20, 83, § 142: virus alarum et sudores, id. 35, 15, 52, § 185: sudor alarum, Petr. 128 (many Romans were accustomed to pluck out the hair from the armpits, Sen. Ep. 114; Juv. 11, 157; v. alipilus).
- B. In animals, the hollow where the foreleg is joined to the shoulder; the shoulder-blade.
Of elephants, Plin. 11, 40, 95, § 324.
Of frogs, Plin. 9, 51, 74, § 159.
- C. In trees and plants, the hollow where the branch unites with the stem, Plin. 16, 7, 10, § 29; so id. 22, 18, 21, § 45; 25, 5, 18, § 38 al.
- D. In buildings, the wings, the side apartments on the right and left of the court, the side halls or porches, the colonnades; called also in Gr. πτερά, Vitr. 6, 4, 137; 4, 7, 92.
- E. In milit. lang., the wing of an army (thus conceived of as a bird of prey), commonly composed of the Roman cavalry and the troops of the allies, esp. their horsemen; hence, alarii in contrast with legionarii, and separated from them in enumeration, also having a leader, called praefectus alae, Tac. H. 2, 59 al.; cf. Lips. de Milit. Rom. 1, 10 Manut.; Cic. Fam. 2, 17 fin.; Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 1, 51; Smith, Dict. Antiq.; Cincius ap. Gell. 16, 4, 6; cf. Gell. 10, 9, 1: Alae, equites: ob hoc alae dicti, quia pedites tegunt alarum vice, Serv. ad Verg. A. 4, 121: peditatu, equitibus atque alis cum hostium legionibus pugnavit, Cato ap. Gell. 15, 9, 5; Cic. Off. 2, 13, 45: dextera ala (in alas divisum socialem exercitum habebat) in primā acie locata est, Liv. 31, 21; Vell. 2, 117 al.
An ala, as a military division, usu. consisted of about 500 men, Liv. 10, 29.
Note: Such alae gave names to several towns, since they were either levied from them, quartered in them, or, after the expiration of their time of service, received the lands of such towns.
So, Ala Flaviana, Ala Nova, et saep. (cf. castrum, II. 1. fin.).
Ălăbanda, ōrum, n. and ae, f., a city in the interior of Caria, distinguished for its wealth and luxury, founded by Alabandus, who was honored by the inhabitants as a deity; now Arab-Hissar; plur. form, Cic. N. D. 3, 15; 3, 19; Liv. 33, 18; 38, 13; Juv. 3, 70; sing. form, Plin. Ep. 5, 29.
Hence, Ălăbandenses, Cic. N. D. 3, 19; Liv. 38, 13; or Ălăbandēni, the inhabitants of Alabanda, Liv. 45, 25.—Ălăbandeus (four syll.), a, um, adj., of Alabanda: Hierocles, Cic. Brut. 95; Vitr. 7, 5.—Ălă-bandĭcus, a, um, adj., pertaining to Alabanda, Plin. 19, 9, 56, § 174; 21, 4, 10, § 16 al.
Also, Ălăbandĭnus, a, um: gemma, a precious stone, named after Alabanda, Isid. Orig. 16, 13.
ălăbarches and ălăbarchĭa, ae, v. arabarches, arabarchia.
† ălăbaster, tri, m. (plur. also ălăba-stra, n.), = ἀλάβαστρος, plur. -ρα.
- I. A box or casket for perfumes, tapering to a point at the top, a box for unguents: alabaster plenus unguenti, * Cic. Ac. Post. ap. Non. 545, 15: mulier habens alabastrum unguenti, Vulg. Matt. 26, 7; ib. Marc. 14, 3; ib. Luc. 7, 37: redolent alabastra, Mart. 11, 8, 9; Plin. 13, 2, 3, § 19.
- II. The form of a rose-bud, pointed at the top: in virides alabastros fastigato, Plin. 21, 4, 10, § 14.
† ălăbastrītes, ae, m., = ἀλαβαστρίτης.
- I. A stone, composed of carbonate of lime (not of gypsum, like the modern alabaster), alabaster-stone; also called onyx and onychites, from which unguent and perfume boxes were made, Plin. 36, 8, 12, § 60.
- II. A precious stone found in the region of the Egyptian town Alabastron, Plin. 37, 10, 54, § 143.
Ălăbastron oppidum (Ἀλαβαστρῶν πόλις, Ptol.), a city of Egypt in the Thebais, Plin. 5, 9, 11, § 61.
† ălăbēta, ae, m., = ἀλαβής, a fish found in the Nile: Silurus anguillaris, Linn.; Plin. 5, 9, 10, § 51.
Ălăbis, is, m., a river in Sicily, Sil. 14, 228.
ălăcer, cris, e, adj. (also in masc. alacris, Enn., v. below; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 13, and Verg. A. 5, 380; cf. Charis. p. 63 P.
In more ancient times, alacer comm.; cf. Serv. ad Verg. A. 6, 685, and 2. acer) [perh. akin to alere = to nourish, and olēre = to grow; cf. Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17; Auct. ad Her. 2, 19, 29], lively, brisk, quick, eager, active; glad, happy, cheerful (opp. languidus; cf. Doed. Syn. 3, 247, and 4, 450.
In the class. per., esp. in Cicero, with the access. idea of joyous activity).
- I. Lit.
- A. Of men: ignotus juvenum coetus, alternā vice Inibat alacris, Bacchio insultans modo, Enn. ap. Charis. p. 214 P.: quid tu es tristis? quidve es alacris? why are you so disturbed? or why so excited? Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 13 ( = incitatus, commotus, Ruhnk.): videbant Catilinam alacrem atque laetum, active and joyous, Cic. Mur. 24, 49: valentes imbecillum, alacres perterritum superare, id. Cael. 28: Aman laetus et alacer, Vulg. Esth. 5, 9: alacres animo sumus, are eager in mind, Cic. Fam. 5, 12 fin. Manut.; Verg. A. 6, 685 al.
With ad: alacriores ad reliquum perficiendum, Auct. ad Her. 2, 31: ad maleficia, id. ib. 2, 30: ad bella suscipienda alacer et promptus animus, Caes. B. G. 3, 19; so Sall. C. 21, 5: ad rem gerendam, Nep. Paus. 2, 6.
With super: alacri corde super omnibus, Vulg. 3 Reg. 8, 66.
In Sall. once for nimble, active: cum alacribus saltu, cum velocibus cursu certabat, Fragm. 62, p. 248 Gerl.
- B. Of animals: equus, Cic. Div. 33, 73: bestiae, Auct. ad Her. 2, 19.
- II. Transf., poet., of concrete and abstract things: alacris voluptas, a lively pleasure, Verg. E. 5, 58; so, alacres enses, quick, ready to cut, Claud. Eutr. 2, 280: involant (in pugnam) impetu alacri, with a spirited, vigorous onset, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 90.
Sup. not used; cf. Charis. 88 P.; Rudd. I. p. 177, n. 48.
Adv.: ălăcrĭter, briskly, eagerly, Amm. 14, 2.
Comp., Just. 1, 6, 10.
ălăcrĭtas, ātis, f. [alacer], the condition or quality of alacer, liveliness, ardor, briskness, alacrity, eagerness, promptness, joy, gladness: alacritas rei publicae defendendae, Cic. Phil. 4, 1: mirā sum alacritate ad litigandum, Cic. Att. 2, 7; so id. ib. 16, 3: alacritas studiumque pugnandi, Caes. B. G. 1, 46: animi incitatio atque alacritas, id. B. C. 3, 92: alacritas animae suae, Vulg. Eccli. 45, 29: finem orationis ingens alacritas consecuta est, Tac. Agr. 35: (naves) citae remis augebantur alacritate militum in speciem ac terrorem, id. A. 2, 6.
Of animals: canum in venando, Cic. N. D. 2, 63.
Of a joyous state of mind as made known by external demeanor, transport, rapture, ecstasy: inanis alacritas, id est laetitia gestiens, Cic. Tusc. 4, 16, 36: vir temperatus, constans, sine metu, sine aegritudine, sine alacritate ullā, sine libidine, id. ib. 5, 16, 48.
With obj. gen., joy on account of something: clamor Romanorum alacritate perfecti operis sublatus, Liv. 2, 10 med.
* In plur.: vigores quidam mentium et alacritates, Gell. 19, 12, 4.
ălăcrĭter, adv., v. alacer fin.
Ălămanni, v. Alemanni.
Ălānus, a, um, adj., of or pertaining to the Alani, = Ἀλανοί, a very warlike Scythian nation upon the Tanais and Palus Mœotis: gens Alana, Claud. B. Get. 583.
Subst.: Ălānus, i, m., one of the Alani, Luc. 10, 454.
Com. plur.: Ălāni, ōrum, the Alani, Plin. 4, 12, 25, § 80; Sen. Thyest. 629; Luc. 8, 223; Val. Fl. 642.
ălăpa, ae, f. [akin to -cello, to smite, as if calapa; cf. κόλαφος], a stroke or blow upon the cheek with the open hand, a box on the ear: ducere gravem alapam alicui, to give, Phaedr. 5, 3: ministri eum alipis caedebant, Vulg. Marc. 14, 65; ib. Joan. 18, 22; 19, 3; esp. among actors, for the purpose of exciting a laugh among their auditors, * Juv. 8, 192; * Mart. 5, 61, 11.
When a slave was emancipated, his master gave him an alapa; hence, poet.: multo majoris alapae mecum veneunt, i. e. with me freedom is much more dearly purchased, Phaedr. 2, 5, 25.
‡ ălăpus, i, m. [alapa], a parasite, who submitted to the box on the ear for gold, Gloss. Isid.; cf. Barth. Advers. 19, 22.
Ălărīcus, i, m., Alaric, a king of the Goths, Claud. B. Get. 431.
ālārĭus, a, um (less freq. ālāris, e), adj. [ala].
In milit. lang., that is upon the wing (of an army), of the wing (opp. legionarii, v. ala, II. E.): cohortes alariae et legionariae, i. e. of the allies, Caes. B. C. 1, 73: cum cohortibus alariis, Liv. 10, 40 Weissenb.: alarii equites, id. 40, 40; so Tac. A. 3, 39; 4, 73; 12, 27 al.
Subst., the form ālārĭus, * Cic. Fam. 2, 17: ut ad speciem alariis uteretur, auxiliaries, allies, Caes. B. G. 1, 51.
The form ālāris, e: inter legionarios aut alares, Tac. H. 2, 94: alares Pannonii, id. A. 15, 10: alares exterruit, id. ib. 15, 11.
Alasi, orum, m., a tribe of Libya, Plin. 5, 5, 5, § 37.
† Ălastor, ŏris, m., = ἀλάστωρ (a tormentor).
- I. One of the companions of Sarpedon, king of Lycia, killed by Ulysses before Troy, Ov. M. 13, 257.
- II. Name of one of the four horses in the chariot of Pluto, Cland. R. Pros. 1, 284.
ălăternus, i, f. [perh. akin to Germ. Erle; Engl. alder], a shrub: Rhamnus Alaternus, Linn.; Col. 7, 6; Plin. 16, 26, 45, § 108.
ālātus, a, um, adj. [ala], furnished with wings, winged (only poet.).
Of Mercury: plantae, * Verg. A. 4, 259: pes, Ov. F. 5, 666: Phoebus alatis aethera carpit equis, id. ib. 3, 416.
ălauda, ae, f. [Celtic; lit. great songstress, from al, high, great, and aud, song; cf. the Fr. alouette; Breton. al’ choueder; v. Diefenbach in Zeitschriften für vergl. Sprachf. IV. p. 391].
- I. The lark, Plin. 11, 37, 44, § 121.
- II. Ălauda, the name of a legion raised by Cœsar, in Gaul, at his own expense (prob. so called from the decoration of their helmet): unam (legionem) ex Transalpinis conscriptam, vocabulo quoque Gallico (Alauda enim appellabatur) civitate donavit, Suet. Caes. 24: cum legione Alaudarum ad urbem pergit, Cic. Att. 16, 8: Huc accedunt Alaudae ceterique veterani, id. Phil. 13, 2.
* ălausa, ae, f. [Fr. alose], a small fish in the Moselle, the shad: Culpea alosa, Linn.; Aus. Mos. 127.
† 1. ălāzōn, ŏnis, m., = ἀλαζών (boasting), a braggart, boaster, Plaut. Mil. 2, 1, 8.
2. Ălāzon, ŏnos, m., a river in Albania, now Alasan, Plin. 6, 10, 11, § 29; Val. Fl. 6, 102.
* 1. alba, ae, f. [albus], a white precious stone, the pearl, Lampr. Hel. 21.
2. Alba or Alba Longa, ae, f. [v. albus].
- I. The mother city of Rome, built by Ascanius, the son of Æneas, upon the broad, rocky margin which lies between the Alban Lake and Mons Albanus; destroyed by Tullus Hostilius, the third king of Rome, and never rebuilt, Enn. Ann. 1, 34, 88; Verg. A. 1, 277; 8, 48; Liv. 1, 27-30; cf. Nieb. Rom. Hist. 1, 220 sq.; Müll. Roms Camp. 2, 97 sq.
- II. The name of several other towns.
- A. Alba Fucentĭa, or absol. Alba, a town north-west of Lacus Fucinus, on the borders of the Marsi, now Colle di Albe, Caes. B. C. 1, 15; Cic. Att. 9, 6; Pomp. ap. Cic. Att. 8 post. ep. 12; Plin. 3, 12, 17, § 106.
- B. Alba Pompēĭa, in Liguria, on the river Tanarus, now Alba, Plin. 3, 5, 7, § 49.
- C. Alba Helvĭa or Alba Helvōrum, in Gallia Narbonensis, now Viviers, Plin. 3, 4, 5, § 36.
3. Alba, ae, m., the name of a king in Alba Longa, Ov. M. 14, 612; id. F. 4, 43.
4. Alba Aemilus, m., a confidant of C. Verres, Cic. Verr. 3, 62, 145.
5. Alba, ae, m., a river in Hispania Tarraconensis, Plin. 3, 2, 3, § 22; v. Albis.
albāmentum, i, n. [albus], the white of the egg = albor: ovi, Apic. 5, 3; id. 6, 9.
Albāna, ae, f. (sc. via), a road leading to Capua, Cic. Agr. 2, 34, 94; Val. Max. 9, 1.
Albānĭa, ae, f., a province on the coast of the Caspian Sea, now Daghestan and Lesghistan, Plin. 6, 13, 15, § 36; Gell. 9, 4; Sol. 25.
Albānus, a, um, adj. [Alba].
- A. Pertaining to the town of Alba, Alban: exercitus, Liv. 1, 28: pax, the peace between the Romans and Albans, id. 1, 27.
- B. Pertaining to Albania: mare Albanum, Plin. 6, 13, 15, § 38: ora, Val. Fl. 5, 460.
- II. Hence, Albāni, ōrum, m.
- A. The Albans, the inhabitants of Alba Longa, Liv. 1, 29.
- B. The Albanians, the inhabitants of Albania, on the Caspian Sea, Plin. 6, 13, 15, § 38.
Esp., Lăcus Albānus, a deep lake in Latium, south of Rome, and on the west side of old Alba, now Lago di Albano, Liv. 5, 15.
Mons Albānus, a rocky mountain in Latium, now Monte Cavo, lying eastward from the Alban Lake, 2500 feet above the surface of the Tyrrhene Sea, on whose western declivity, extending to the lake, was the old Alba Longa. Upon its summit, which afforded a noble view, stood the splendid temple of Juppiter Latiaris, up to which wound a paved way, still in part existing, for the festive processions in the holidays of the Latins (feriae Latinae), as well as for the ovations of the Roman generals, cf. Müll. Roms Camp. 2, 139-146.
Lăpis Albānus, the kind of stone hewn from Mount Alba, called in Ital. peperino or piperno, Vitr. 2, 7; hence. Albanae columnae, made of such stone, Cic. Scaur. 2, 45.
Albānum, i, n., an estate at Alba, Cic. Att. 7, 5; Quint. 5, 13, 40; Suet. Aug. 72.
albāris, e, adj., v. the foll.
albārĭus, a, um, adj. [albo], only in archit., pertaining to the whitening of walls.
Hence, albārĭum ŏpus, or absol. al-bārĭum, white stucco, a mortar composed of lime, gypsum, and a little fine river sand, with which walls were covered and made white, Vitr. 5, 2, 10; 7, 2, 3; Plin. 35, 16, 56, § 194; 36, 24, 59, § 183; also, with the form albāris, e: OPVS ALBARE, Inscr. Orell. 4239.—albārĭus tector, a worker in stucco, a plasterer, Tert. Idol. 8; or absol. albārĭus, Cod. Th. 13, 4, 2, and Inscr. Orell. 4142.
albātus, a, um, adj. [from albus, as atratus from ater], clothed in white: cum ipse epuli dominus albatus esset, * Cic. Vatin. 13; * Hor. S. 2, 2, 61; so Suet. Dom. 12.
In the Circensian games, one party, which was clothed in white, was called albati, Plin. 8, 42, 65, § 160 Hard. (cf. russatus, Juv. 7, 114).
albēdo, ĭnis, f. [from albus, as atratus from ater], white color, whiteness; only in eccl. Lat.; Sev. Sulp. H. Sacr. 1, 16; Cassiod. Ep. 12, 4.
albĕo, ēre, v. n. [from albus, as atratus from ater], to be white (rare and orig. poet., esp. often in Ovid; but also in post-Aug. prose): campi ossibus, * Verg. A. 12, 36: caput canis capillis, Ov. H. 13, 161.
Esp. in the part. pres.: albens, white: albentes rosae, Ov. A. A. 3, 182: spumae, id. M. 15, 519: vitta, id. ib. 5, 110 al.; in prose: equi, * Plin. Pan. 22; in Tac. several times: ossa, A. 1, 61: spumae, id. ib. 6, 37: in pallorem membra, id. ib. 15, 64.
The poet. expression, albente caelo, at daybreak, at the dawn, was used (acc. to Caecilius in Quint. 8, 3, 35) in prose first by the hist. Sisenna (about 30 years before Cæs.), and after him by Cæs. and the author of the Bell. Afric.; * Caes. B. C. 1, 68; Auct. Bell. Afric. 11; ib. 80; cf. albesco.
albesco, ĕre, v. inch. [albeo], to become white (mostly poet. or in post-Aug. prose; once in Cic.), * Lucr. 2, 773; so Verg. A. 7, 528: albescens capillus, * Hor. C. 3, 14, 25: maturis messis aristis, Ov. F. 5, 357: aquilarum pennae, Plin. 10, 3, 4, § 13: flammarum tractus, Verg. G. 1, 367: mare, quia a sole collucet, albescit et vibrat, * Cic. Ac. 2, 33, 105.
Hence, of the appearance of daylight, of daybreak (cf. albeo), to dawn: lux, Verg. A. 4, 586: albescente caelo, Paul. Dig. 28, 2, 25.
‡ albēsia (for albensia), ium, n., a large shield used by the Albenses, a people of the Marsian race, Paul. ex Fest. p. 4 Müll.
Albĭānus, a, um, adj. [Albius], pertaining to Albius; only in Cic.: judicium, Caecin. 10: pecunia, Clu. 30.
* albĭcasco, ĕre, v. inch. [albico], to become white, to grow clear: albicascit Phoebus, Matius ap. Gell. 15, 25 Hertz.
albĭcēris, e, or albĭcērus, a, um, also albĭcērātus, a, um, adj. [albuscera], prop. wax-white, i. e. light yellow: olea albiceris, Cato, R. R. 6, and Varr. R. R. 1, 24: olea albicera, Cat. ap. Plin. 15, 5, 6, § 20: albicerata ficus, Plin. 15, 18 init.; cf. Col 10, 417.
albĭco, āre, v. a. and n. [albus].
- * I. Act., to make white: rivus offensus a scopulo albicatur, becomes white, foamy, Poët. ap. Non. 75, 21.
- II. Neutr., to be white (rare; poet. or in post-Aug. prose): prata canis pruinis, * Hor. C. 1, 4, 4: albicans litus, Cat. 63, 87: ex nigro albicare incipit, Plin. 27, 5, 23, § 40: colos, id. 25, 8, 50, § 89: alb cans cauda, id. 10, 3, 3, § 6.
Hence, * albĭcantius, adv. comp., somewhat in the way of white: (hyacinthus lapis) albicantius in aquaticum eliquescit, Sol. 30.
* albĭcŏlor, ōris, adj. [albus-color], of a white color: campus, Coripp. 1, 429.
* albĭcŏmus, a, um, adj. [albus-coma], white-haired; hence of flowers, having white fibres, Ven. 4, 2.
* albĭdŭlus, a, um, adj. dim. [albidus], whitish: color, Pall. 3, 25, 12.
albĭdus, a, um, adj. [albus], white (very rare): spuma, * Ov. M. 3, 74: granum, Col. R. R. 2, 9, 13: ulcus, Cels. 5, 26: pus albidius, id. 5, 28, n. 4: pus albidissimum, id. 5, 26, n. 20: color caeruleo albidior, Plin. Ep. 8, 20, 4.
Adv. not used.
* albĭnĕus, a, um, adj. [albus], white: color (equorum), Pall. 4. 13.
Albĭnĭus, ii, m., the name of a Roman gens: C. Albinius, Cic. Sest. 3, 6.
Hence, Albĭnĭānus, a, um, adj., of or belonging to an Albinius.
Subst.: Albĭnĭāni, ōrum, m., adherents of Albinius, Spart. Sev. 10; Tert. ad Scap. 2.
Albĭnŏvānus, i, m., a Roman proper name.
- I. C. Pedo Albinovanus, a contemporary and friend of Ovid (v. Pont. 4, 10), an epic poet, of whose greater epic, which had for its subject the deeds of Germanicus, we have only a fragment remaining, under the title: De navigatione Germanici per Oceanum Septentrionalem, in Sen. Suas. 1, p. 11.
See Quint. 10, 1, 90; Crinit. Poët. Lat. c. 64; Bähr’s Lit. Gesch. 83; 217 and 218; Weich. Poët. Lat. 382.
- II. Celsus Albinovanus, a contemporary of Horace, to whom the latter addresses one of his epistles (Ep. 1, 8, v. Schmid. Einl.).
* 1. albīnus, i, m., = albarius, one who covers walls with stucco or plaster, a plasterer: albini, quos Graeci κονιάτας appellant, Cod. Const. 10, 64, 1.
2. Albīnus, i, m., a Roman family name.
- I. The name of a Roman usurer, Hor. A. P. 327.
- II. A. Postumius Albinus, censor, A. U. C. 580, Cic. Verr. 1, 41, 106; Liv. 41, 27.
- III. Esp.: A. Postumius Albinus, who was consul with Lucullus a short time before the third Punic war, 603 A. U. C., and the author of a Roman Hist. in Greek, cf. Cic. Brut. 21, 81; id. Ac. 2, 45, 137; Gell. 11, 8; Macr. S. praef.
1. Albĭon, ōnis, f. [v. albus], an ancient name for Britain, in Ptol. Ἀλουίων, Plin. 4, 16, 30, § 102.
2. Albĭon, ōnis, m., a son of Neptune, Mel. 2, 6, 4.
Albĭona ager trans Tiberim dicitur a luco Albionarum: quo loco bos alba sacrificabatur, Paul. ex Fest. p. 4 Müll.
Albis, is, m. [v. albus], a river of Germany, now the Elbe, Tac. G. 41; id. A. 4, 44: Albin liquere Cherusci, Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 452.
Also Alba, ae, m., Vop. Prob. 13.
albĭtūdo, ĭnis, f. [albus], white color, whiteness: capitis, Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 32, v. Non. 73, 5: furfuris, App. Herb. 20.
Albĭus, ii, m. [id.; cf. Varr. L. L. 8, § 80 Müll.], the name of a Roman gens.
Albĭus Tibullus, the Roman elegiac poet, v. Tibullus.
* albo, āre. v. a. [id.; cf. ], to make white: hoc albat gurgite nigras (lanas), Prisc. Perieg. 431.
‡ albŏgălērus, i, m. [albus-galerus], the white hat of the flamen Dialis, Fest. p. 10; cf. Varr. ap. Gell. 10, 15 fin.
* albŏgilvus, a, um, adj. [albus-gilvusl, whitish yellow, Serv. ad Verg. G. 3, 82.
Albōna ae, f., a town in Liburnia.
albor, ōris, m. [albus].
- I. Whiteness, white color (eccl. Lat.): si (caro) versa fuerit in alborem, Vulg. Lev. 13, 16; 13, 25; 13, 29.
- II. The white of an egg, = albamentum (post-class.): ovorum, Pall. 11, 14, 9; Apic. 1, 6: ovi, Scrib. Comp. 24.
albūcus, i, m.
- I. The bulb of the asphodel, Plin. 21, 17, 68, § 109.
- II. The plant itself, App. Herb. 32.
albŭēlis, is, f., a kind of vine, Cels. ap. Col. 3, 2, 24, and Plin. 14, 2, 4, § 31.
albūgo, ĭnis, f. [albus] (perh. only in Pliny).
- I. A white spot, a disease of the eye; film, albugo, Plin. 32, 7, 24, § 70: oculorum albugines, id. 24, 5, 11, § 19: pupillarum, id. 29, 6, 38, § 117: habere in oculo, Vulg. Lev. 21, 20.
- * II. In the plur., scurf upon the head, Plin. 26, 15, 90, § 160.
Albŭla, ae, f. [albulus], sc. aqua.
- I. An earlier name for the river Tiber, in Middle Italy: amisit verum vetus Albula nomen, Verg. A. 8, 332; Ov. F. 4, 68.
- II. Albŭla, ae, or Albŭlae, ārum, sc. aquae, several sulphur-springs near Tibur, mentioned in Strabo and Pausanias, which were beneficial to invalids both for bathing and drinking. Only three now remain, which form three small lakes, called Bagni di Tivoli: Canaque sulfureis albula fumat aquis, Mart. 1, 13; Plin. 31, 2, 6, § 10; so Suet. Aug. 82; id. Ner. 31; cf. Müll. Roms Camp. 1, 161 sq.
albŭlus, a, um, adj. dim. [albus], whitish: columbus, Cat. 29, 8; esp. of the white color of water: freta, Mart. 12, 99, 4.
album, i, n., v. albus, III.
* albūmen, ĭnis, n. [albus], the white of an egg, albumen: ovi, Plin. 28, 6, 18, § 66.
albūmentum, i, n. [albus], the white of an egg: ovi, Veg. Vet. 2, 57.
Albŭnĕa, also Albūna, ae, f. [v. albus], a fountain at Tibur gushing up between steep rocks (or poet., the nymph who dwelt there), near to which was the villa of Horace: domus Albuneae resonantis, * Hor. C. 1, 7, 12; * Verg. A. 7, 83; cf. Müll. Roms Camp. 1, 238 and 239.
- 2. A sibyl worshipped in a grove at Tibur, Lact. 1, 6, 12: Albuna, Tib. 2, 5, 69, where now Müll. reads Aniena.
* alburnum, i, n. [albus], the soft, thin, white layer between the bark and wood of trees, sap-wood, alburnum, Plin. 16, 38, 72, § 182.
* 1. alburnus, i, m. [albus], a white fish, prob. the bleak or blay, Aus. Mos. 126.
2. Alburnus, i, m., a mountain in Lucania, not far from the river Silarus, now Monte di Postiglione, * Verg. G. 3, 146.
Also worshipped as a deity, Tert. contr. Marc. 1, 18.
albus, a, um, adj. [cf. Umbr. alfu and Sab. alpus = white; ἀλφός = white rash; O. H. Germ. Elbiz = a swan; to this have been referred also Alba Longa, Albunea, Alpes from their snowy summits (Paul. ex Fest. p. 4 Müll.), Albion from its chalky cliffs, Ἀλφειός, and Albis = Elbe], white (properly dead white, not shining; e. g. hair, complexion, garments, etc., opp. ater, black that is without lustre; while candidus denotes a glistening, dazzling white, opp. niger, shining black.
Hence, trop., albus and ater, a symbol of good or ill fortune; on the other hand, candidus and niger of moral worth or unworthiness; cf. Doed. Syn. III. 193 sq.
So Serv. ad Verg. G. 3, 82: aliud est candidum, i. e. quādam nitenti luce perfusum esse; aliud album, quod pallori constat esse vicinum; cf. Verg. E. 7, 38: Candidior cycnis, hederā formosior albā, with id. ib. 3, 39: diffusos hederā vestit pallente corymbos; but this distinction is freq. disregarded by the poets).
- I. Lit.
- A. In gen.: barba, Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 15: corpus, id. Capt. 3, 4, 115: color albus praecipue decorus deo est, maxime in textili, Cic. Leg. 2, 18, 45: albus calculus, the small white stone used in voting, as a sign of acceding to the opinion of any one, or of the acquittal of one who is under accusation (opp. ater calculus; v. calculus).
Hence, trop.: alicui rei album calculum adicere, to allow, approve of, authorize, Plin. Ep. 1, 2, 5.
In Enn. an epithet of the sun and moon: sol, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48, 107 (Ann. v. 92 Vahl.): jubar Hyperionis, Enn. ap. Prisc. p. 658 P. (Ann. v. 547 ib.).
The following are examples of the opposition of albus and niger (instead of ater) as exceptions to the gen. rule; so always in Lucr. (who also uses albus and candidus or candens promiscuously), 2, 810; 822 sqq.; 731 sq.; 790; 767-771. Once in Cic.: quae alba sint, quae nigra dicere, Div. 2, 3; so Phaedr. 3, 15, 10; Ov. M. 2, 541; cf. with id. ib. 2, 534 and 535; also id. ib. 12, 403; 15, 46; id. H. 15, 37 al.: albi et nigri velleris, Vulg. Gen. 30, 35: non potes unum capillum album facere aut nigrum, ib. Matt. 5, 36.
- B. Esp.
- 1. Pale, from sickness, terror, care, and the like: aquosus albo Corpore languor, of dropsical persons, Hor. C. 2, 2, 15: pallor, id. Epod. 7, 15: vivat et urbanis albus in officiis, pale from the cares of his public office, Mart. 1, 56 fin. et saep.
- 2. Of clothing, white: alba decent Cererem; vestes Cerealibus albas Sumite, Ov. F. 4, 619: vidit duos Angelos in albis, Vulg. Joan. 20, 12; ib. Apoc. 3, 4.
Hence, poet. transf. to the person, clothed in white, Hor. S. 1, 2, 36: pedibus qui venerat albis, who had come with white feet, i. e. marked with chalk, as for sale, Juv. 1, 111 (cf. gypsatus and also Plin. 35, 17, 58, §§ 199-201; Mayor ad 1. 1.).
- 3. Prov. phrases.
- a. Dentibus albis deridere, to deride one by laughing so as to show the teeth, for to deride much, Plaut. Ep. 3, 3, 48 (cf. id. Capt. 3, 1, 26).
- b. Albus an ater sit, nescio or non curo, I know not, care not whether he is white or black, i. e. he is entirely indifferent to me: vide, quam te amārit is, qui albus aterve fueris ignorans, fratris filium praeteriit, Cic. Phil. 2, 16: unde illa scivit, ater an albus nascerer, Phaedr. 3, 15, 10; Cat. 93, 2; cf. Quint. 11, 1, 38.
- c. Albo rete aliquid oppugnare, to attack or seize upon something with a white net, i. e. in a delicate, skilful manner: qui hic albo rete aliena oppugnant bona, Plaut. Pers. 1, 2, 22 (so the passage seems to be more simply explained than acc. to the opinion of Gron.: qui albo (by the register of the prætor) tamquam rete, which omission of the tamquam is a Horatian, but not a Plautinian idiom).
- d. Albā lineā aliquid signare, to make a white line upon a white ground, i. e. to make no distinction: et amabat omnes, nam ut discrimen non facit … signat linea alba, Lucil. ap. Non. 282, 28 (where the common editions have neque before signare, which gives the expression a directly opposite sense): albā, ut dicitur, lineā sine curā discriminis convertebant, Gell. praef. 11.
- * e. Alba avis, a white sparrow, for something rare, uncommon, strange: quasi avem albam videntur bene sentientem civem videre, Cic. Fam. 7, 28 (quasi novum quiddam; proverbium ex eo natum, quia rarae aves albae, Manut. ad h. 1.).
- * f. Filius albae gallinae, fortune’s favorite child, Juv. 13, 141, prob. an allusion to the miracle that happened to Livia in regard to a white hen, v. Plin. 15, 30, 40; Suet. Galb. 1 (Ruperti ad h. 1, refers this expression to the unfruitfulness of a white hen, and conpares Col. R. R. 8, 2, 7).
- * g. Equis albis praecurrere aliquem, to excel, surpass one, Hor. S. 1, 7, 8 (the figure being drawn from the white horses attached to a triumphal chariot; cf. Suet. Ner. 25; id. Dom. 2).
- II. Trop.
- A. Favorable, fortunate, propitious: simul alba nautis Stella refulsit, i. e. the twin-star Castor, favorable to sailors, Hor. C. 1, 12, 27: dies, Sil. 15, 53: sint omnia protinus alba, Pers. 1, 110.
- B. Poet. and act., of the wind, making clear or bright, dispersing the clouds; hence, dry: Notus, Hor. C. 1, 7, 15 (as a transl. of the Gr. λευκόνοτος): iapyx, id. ib. 3, 27, 19 (cf.: clarus aquilo, Verg. G. 1, 460).
- III. album, i, n., whiteness.
- A. White color, white: maculis insignis et albo, Verg. G. 3, 56; sparsis pellibus albo, id. E. 2, 41: columnas polire albo, to make white, whiten, Liv. 40, 51.
- 2. Esp.,
- a. The white of the eye: oculorum, Cels. 2, 6; so id. 7, 7, n. 6 and 12.
- b. The white of an egg: ovi, Cels. 6, 6, n. 7.
- c. In Col. 6, 17, 7, a white spot on the eye, i. e. a disease of it, = albugo.
- B. In the lang. of polit. life, a white tablet, on which any thing is inscribed (like λεύκωμα in Gr.).
- 1. The tablets on which the Pontifex Maximus registered the principal events of the year, the Annales maximi (v. annales): in album referre, to enter or record in, Cic. de Or. 2, 12, 52; Liv. 1, 32, 2.
- 2. The tablets of the prœtor, on which his edicts were written, and which were posted up in some public place, Paul. Sent. l. 1, t. 14.
Hence, sedere ad album, to be employed with the edicts of the prœtor, Sen. Ep. 48: se ad album transferre, Quint. 12, 3, 11 Spald.
- 3. Esp., a list of names, a register, e. g. Album senatorium, the tablet on which the names of the senators were enrolled, the roll, register, which, by the order of Augustus, was to be posted up annually in the senate-house, Diom. 55, 3, and Fragm. 137: aliquem albo senatorio eradere, Tac. A. 4, 42 fin.
Also, the list of the judges chosen by the quœstors: aliquem albo judicum eradere, Suet. Claud. 16; so id. Dom. 8.
And transf. to other catalogues of names: citharoedorum, Suet. Ner. 21.
Alcaeus, i, m., = Ἀλκαῖος, a renowned lyric poet of Mitylene, contemporary with Sappho, 610 B.C., inventor of the metre which bears his name, and which was imitated by the Latin poets, esp. by Horace; v. Hor. C. 2, 13, 27; 4, 9, 7; id. Ep. 1, 19, 29; 2, 2, 99; Ov. H. 15, 29 sq.; Quint. 10, 1, 63.
Hence, Alcăĭcus, a, um, adj., = Ἀλκαϊκός, of or pertaining to Alcœus: versus, the Alcaic verse; cf. Diom. 510 P.; Grotef. Gr. II. 107; Zumpt, Gr. § 866.
Alcămĕnes, is, m., = Ἀλκαμένης, a Greek sculptor of the school of Phidias, Cic. N. D. 1, 30; Val. Max. 8, 11; Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 72.
Alcander, ri, m.
- I. A Trojan, Ov. M. 13, 258.
- II. A companion of Æneas, Verg. A. 10, 338.
Alcăthŏē, ēs, f., = Ἀλκαθόη, the castle of Megara, named after Alcathous; poet for Megara, Ov. M. 7, 443 (cf. Paus. Attic. p. 98).
Alcăthŏus, i, m., = Ἀλκάθοος, son of Pelops, founder of Megara, which was hence called Alcathoi urbs, Ov. M. 8, 8.
Alcē, ēs, f., a town in Hispania Tarraconensis, now Alcazar de S. Juan, Liv. 40, 48; 49.
† alcĕa, ae, f., = ἀλκέα, a species of mallows: Malva alcea, Linn.; Plin. 27, 4, 6, § 21.
alcēdo (halc-), ĭnis, later † alcyon (halc-), ĭnis, f., = ἀλκυών [O. H. Germ. alacra; the forms halcedo, halcyon arose from a fancied connection with ἅλς = the sea], the kingfisher, halcyon: Alcedo hispida, Linn.: Alcedo dicebatur ab antiquis pro alcyone, Paul. ex Fest. p. 7 Müll.: haec avis nunc Graece dicitur ἁλκυών, a nostris halcedo; sed hieme quod pullos dicitur tranquillo mari facere, eos dies halcyonios appellant (Gr. ἁλκυονίδες ἡμέραι, Aristoph. Av. 1594 Bergk), halcyon-days, Varr. L. L. 7, § 88 Müll.; Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 142; cf. Plin. 10, 32, 47.
alcēdōnĭa (halc-), ōrum, n. [alcedo], the fourteen winter days during which the kingfisher broods and the sea is calm, v. alcedo.
Hence, trop., a deep calm, profound tranquillity: ludi sunt, tranquillum est, alcedonia sunt circum forum, Plaut. Cas. prol. 26: mare ipsum aiunt, ubi alcedonia sint, fieri feriatum, Front. Fer. Alc. 3.
alces, is, f. [ἄλκη; O. H. Germ. Elaho; Norse, elgr; Engl. elk], the elk, living in the northern regions: Cervus alces, Linn.; Caes. B. G. 6, 27; Plin. 8, 15, 16, § 39.
Alcestis, is, or Alcestē, ēs, f., = Ἄλκηστις or Ἀλκήστη, daughter of Pelias, and wife of Admetus, king of Pherœ, for the preservation of whose life she resigned her own, but was afterwards brought back from the lower world by Hercules, and restored to her husband, v. Hyg. Fab. 51 and 251; Mart. 4, 75; Juv. 6, 652.
Also, a play of Nœvius, Gell. 19, 7.
Alceus (dissyl.), ĕi and ĕos, m., = Ἀλκεύς, father of Amphitryo and grandfather of Hercules, who was named Alcides from him, Serv. ad Verg. A. 6, 392.
Alcĭbĭădes, is, m. (gen. Alcibiadi, Arn. adv. Gent. 6, p. 198; voc. Gr. Alcibiadē, Liv. 39, 36), = Ἀλκιβιάδης.
- I. An Athenian general in the time of the Peloponnesian war, distinguished for his beauty, wealth, and natural endowments, as well as for his changing fortunes and want of fixed principle, Cic. de Or. 2, 22; id. Tusc. 3, 22 (his life, v. in Plut., Nep., and Just.).
Hence, * Alcĭbĭădēus, a, um, adj., pertaining to him, Arn. 6, p. 198.
- II. The name of a later Greek in the time of the war with the Romans, Liv. 39, 36.
Alcĭdĕmos, i, f., v. 1. Alcis.
Alcīdes, ae, m., = Ἀλκείδης, a male descendant of Alceus; usu. his grandson Hercules, Verg. E. 7, 61; id. A. 8, 203; 10, 321: quid memorem Alciden? id. ib. 6, 123; so Hor. C. 1, 12, 25; Tib. 4, 1, 12; Prop. 1, 20, 49: non fugis, Alcide, Ov. H. 9, 75; voc. also Alcidā, Sen. Herc. Fur. 1343.
Alcĭmăchus, i, m., = Ἀλκίμαχος, a famous Greek painter, Plin. 35, 11, 40, § 139.
Alcĭmĕdē, ēs, f., = Ἀλκιμέδη, a daughter of Autolycus, wife of Æson, and mother of Jason, Ov. H. 6, 105; Hyg. Fab. 14; Val. Fl. 1, 317; Stat. Th. 5, 236.
Alcĭmĕdon, ontis, m., the name of an artist in wood-carving, of whom nothing more is known; perh. contemporary with Vergil, Verg. E. 3, 37 and 44: ubi v. Wagn.
Alcĭnŏus, i, m., = Ἀλκίνοος, a king of the Phœacians, by whom Ulysses, in his wanderings, was entertained as guest, Ov. P. 2, 9, 42; Prop. 1, 14, 24; Hyg. Fab. 23, 125. On account of the luxury that prevailed at his court, Horace called luxurious young men juventus Alcinoi, voluptuaries, Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 29 (cf. the words of Alcinous in Hom. Od. 8, 248). His love for horticulture (cf. Hom. Od. 7, 112 sq.) was also proverbial: pomaque et Alcinoi silvae, fruit-trees, Verg. G. 2, 87: Alcinoi pomaria, Stat. S. 1, 3, 81.
Hence, Alcinoo dare poma, of any thing superfluous (as in silvam ligna ferre, Hor. S. 1, 10, 34, and in Gr. γλαῦκ’ εἰς Ἀθήνας), Ov. P. 4, 2, 10; Mart. 7, 41.
† 1. Alcis, ĭdis, f., = Ἀλκίς [from ἀλκή, strength], an appellation of Minerva among the Macedonians: Minervae, quam vocant Alcidem, Liv. 42, 51, where Weissenb. reads Alcidemon.
* 2. Alcis, m. [acc. to some fr. the Gr. ἀλκή; acc. to others, the Old Germ. Elk = force], a deity of the Naharvali, Tac. G. 43; cf. Ruperti ad h. 1.
Alcisthĕnē, ēs, f., = Ἀλκισθένη, a Greek female painter, Plin. 35, 11, 40, § 147.
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