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aestas, ātis, f. [akin to αἴθω = to burn, Varr. L. L. 6, § 9; cf.: aestus, aether, aethra; Sanscr. indh = to kindle, iddhas = kindled; O. H. Germ. eiten = to heat; Germ. Hitze = heat], in an extended sense,

  1. I. the summer season, as one half of the year, from March twenty-second to September twenty-second (the other half was hiems, the winter season); cf. Dig. 43, 19: aestas et hiems, nox et dies, Vulg. Gen. 8, 22: in a restricted sense, the summer, the three months from the entrance of the sun into Cancer to the autumnal equinox (the entrance into Libra): Arabes campos et montes hieme et aestate peragrantes, Cic. Div. 1, 42: (formica) parat in aestate cibum sibi, Vulg. Prov. 6, 8: aestate ineunte, at the beginning of summer, Cic. Att. 4, 2: nova, Verg. A. 1, 430: media, midsummer, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 12, 35: jam adulta, Tac. A. 2, 23; so Aur. Vict. Caes. 32, 3 Arntz.: summa, the height of summer, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 31: exacta, Sall. J. 65: finita, Vulg. Jer. 8, 20: cum affecta jam prope aestate uvas a sole mitescere tempus est, Cic. Oecon. ap. Non. 161, 2.
    With anni, summer-time, Gell. 2, 21: aestate anni flagrantissima, id. 19, 5.
    Since war among the ancients was carried on only in summer, aestas is sometimes (like θέρος in Gr.) used by the histt. for,
  2. II. A year, Vell. 2, 47; 82: quae duabus aestatibus gesta, Tac. A. 6, 39; so. te jam septuma portat omnibus errantem terris aestas, Verg. A. 1, 756.
    1. B. Summer air: per aestatem liquidam, Verg. G. 4, 59; id. A. 6, 707.
    2. C. Summer heat: ignea, Hor. C. 1, 17, 3.
    3. * D. Freckles as caused by heat: aestates, Plin. 28, 12, 50, § 185, where Jan. reads testas.

aestĭfer, fēra, fĕrum, adj. [aestus-fero]

  1. I. Act., bringing, causing, or producing heat: ignis, Lucr. 1, 663; 5, 612: canis, Verg. G. 2, 353; Cic. Arat. 111; Sil. 1, 194; 14, 585 al.
  2. II. Pass., heated, sultry, hot: Libyum arva, Luc. 1, 206: campi Garamantum, Sil. 17, 448.

Aestĭi (the correct read., not Aestŭi), ōrum, m., a Germanic people on the southeast or east of the Baltic, the Esthen, Tac. G. 45 Halm.

* aestĭmābĭlis, e, adj. [aestimo], worthy of estimation, valuable, estimable: aestimabile esse dicitur id, quodaliquod pondus habeat dignum aestimatione, contaque inaestimabile, quod sit superiori contrarium, Cic. Fin. 3, 6, 20.

aestĭmātĭo, ōnis, f. [aestimo].

  1. I. The estimating a thing according to its extrinsic (money) value, valuation, appraisement: in censu habendo potestas omnis aestimationis habendae censori permittitur, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 53: aestimatio frumenti, the determination of the prœtor (legate or quœstor), how much ready money one should pay, instead of the corn which he was to furnish, id. ib. 2, 3, 92: erat Athenis reo damnato, si fraus non capitalis esset, quasi poenae aestimatio, i. e. a commutation of corporal punishment for a fine, id. de Or. 1, 54, 232.
    So esp. litis or litium aestimatio, in Roman civil law, an estimating, valuation of the contested matter; in criminal law also, the stating how much the convicted person had to pay, an assessment of damages, Cic. Clu. 41, 116; id. Verr. 2, 2, 18, § 45 (cf. lis aestimata, id. ib. 1, 13): lex de multarum aestimatione, Liv. 4, 30.
    After the civil war, Cæsar, in order to enable debtors to cancel the demands against them, decreed an aestimatio possessionum, i. e. an estimation or appraisement of real estate, according to the value which it had before the war, and compelled the creditors to take this in payment instead of money; they were also obliged to deduct from the sum demanded any interest that had been paid; v. Caes. B. C. 3, 1; and Suet. Caes. 42. Hence, in aestimationem accipere, to accept or agree to such a valuation, or payment by real estate at a high price: a Marco Laberio C. Albinius praedia in aestimationem accepit, Cic. Fam. 13, 8.
    And meton., with an allusion to the law of Cæsar: aestimationes = praedia, the real estate received in payment: quando aestimationes tuas vendere non potes, Cic. Fam. 9, 18. Since the creditor was a loser by this regulation, aestimationem accipere, to suffer injury or loss, id. ib. 16.
  2. II. Trop.
    1. A. A valuation, i. e. an estimation of a thing according to its intrinsic worth (while existimatio denotes the consideration, regard due to an object on account of its nominal value): bonum hoc est quidem plurimi aestimandum, sed ea aestimatio genere valet, non magnitudine, Cic. Fin. 3, 10, 34; so 3, 13, 44; 3, 6: semper aestimationem arbitriumque ejus honoris penes senatum fuisse, Liv. 3, 63: semper infra aliorum aestimationes se metiens, Vell. 1, 127; 97; Plin. 3, 5, 9, § 67: aestimatione rectā severus, deterius interpretantibus tristior habebatur, Tac. H. 1, 14 al.
    2. B. Poet., the worth or value of a thing: Quod me non movet aestimatione, Cat. 12, 12.

aestĭmātor, ōris, m. [aestimo].

  1. I. One that estimates a thing according to its extrinsic value, a valuer, appraiser: frumenti, Cic. Pis. 35 fin.: callidi rerum aestimatores prata et areas quasdam magno aestimant, id. Par. 6, 3.
  2. II. Trop., an estimator or valuer of a thing according to its intrinsic worth (while existimator is a judge): nemo erit tam injustus rerum aestimator, qui dubitet, etc., Cic. Marcell. 5: justus rerum aestimator, id. Or. 41: immodicus aestimator sui, Curt. 8, 1 al.

aestĭmātōrĭus, a, um, adj. [aestimator], regarding a valuer or taxer, only in the jurists: actio, Dig. 19, 3, 1; and absol.: aestĭmātōrĭa, ae, Dig. 21, 1, 43, § 6: aestimatorium judicium, ib. Fragm. 18 al.

aestĭmātus, ūs, m. [aestimo], = aestimatio; found only in the abl.: aetatis, in valuing, considering, the time, Macr. S. 1, 16: in aestimatu est mel e thymo, in value, i. e. much esteemed, Plin. 11, 15, 15, § 38 (cf. in pretio habere, Tac. G. 5).

aestĭmĭa, ae, f. [aestimo], = aestimatio, acc. to Paul. ex Fest. p. 26 Müll.

aestĭmĭum, i, n. [aestimo], = aestimatio (late Lat.), Hyg. de Limit. p. 152 Goes.; so besides only Front. de Colon. p. 127 ib.

aestĭmo (arch. aestŭ-), āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. [from aes, with the termination -tumo, which also appears in autumo; cf.: legitumus, finitumus, maritumus; later, legitimus, finitimus, maritimus; compare the Goth. aistjan, to estimate].

  1. I. To determine or estimate the extrinsic (money) value of a thing, to value, rate, appraise; constr. with gen. or abl. (v. of price, Zumpt. §§ 444 and 456): domum emit prope dimidio carius quam aestimabat, Cic. Dom. 44: frumentum III denariis, id. Verr. 2, 3, 92: aliquid tenuissime, id. ib. 2, 4, 16: prata magno, id. Par. 6, 3: perfecit (Aratus) aestimandis possessionibus, ut, etc., id. Off. 2, 23, 82; hence, litem alicui or alicujus, to estimate the value of an object in question, and thus determine how much the convicted person shall pay, to estimate or assess the damages; cf. Ascon. ad Cic. Verr. 1, 13, 38, and Beier ad Cic. Oratt. Fragm. Exc. IV. p. 265; Cic. Verr. l. l.
  2. II. Trop., to estimate the intrinsic (moral) worth of a thing, to weigh, value, hold, etc. (while existimare, as a consequence of aestimare, signifies to judge a thing in any way after estimating its value: ex pretio rei judicare; cf. Burm. ad Phaedr. 3, 4; Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 2, 17; Corte and Kritz ad Sall. C. 8, 2; Gronov. ad Liv. 4, 41; 34, 2; and aestimator).
          1. (α) That which serves as a standard by which a thing is estimated with ex or the abl.: vulgus ex veritate pauca, ex opinione multa aestimant, Cic. Rosc. Com. 10: aliquem ex artificio comico, id. ib.: cum in Aquitaniam pervenisset, quae pars, ex tertiā parte Galliae est aestimanda, etc., i. e. is to be reckoned as a third part, Caes. B. G. 3, 20: amicitias inimicitiasque non ex re, sed ex commodo, Sall. C. 10, 5.
            With simple abl.: virtutem annis, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 48: aliquid vitā, to measure a thing by life, i. e. to hold it as dear as life, Curt. 5, 5: nec Macedonas veteri famā, sed praesentibus viribus aestimandos, Just. 30, 4.
          2. (β) The value attached to a thing in estimating it, in the gen. or abl. pretii (cf. I.); poet. also with acc. nihil: auctoritatem alicujus magni, Cic. Att. 7, 15: quod non minoris aestimamus quam quemlibet triumphum, Nep. Cat. 1: aliquid unius assis, Cat. 5, 2: aliquid permagno, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 7, § 13: non magno, id. Fin. 3, 3, 11; so id. Tusc. 3, 4, 8: non nihilo aestimandum, id. Fin. 4, 23, 62: magno te aestimaturum, Liv. 40, 55: magno aestimantibus se, id. 40, 41. And with definite numerals which give the price-current for which a thing may be had; cf. Zumpt. § 456; Sall. Fragm. p. 974 Corte: denis in diem assibus animam et corpus aestimari, Tac. A. 1, 17: emori nolo, sed me esse mortuum nihil aestimo, Cic. Tusc. 1, 8, 15.
          3. (γ) Among the histt. with a rel. clause.: aestimantibus, quanta futuri spe tam magna tacuisset, Tac. Agr. 18 fin.: quantopere dilectus sit, facile est aestimare, Suet. Aug. 57 (but in Sall. J. 31, 19, the correct read. is existumabitis, Dietsch).

aestīva, ōrum, v. aestivus, II.

aestīvālis, e, adj., = aestivus, pertaining to summer, summer-like: circulus, i. e. the tropic of Cancer, Hyg. Astr. 3, 24.

aestīvē, adv., v. aestivus fin.

aestīvo, āvi, ātum, 1, v. n. [aestivus], to spend or pass the summer in a place (like hiemo, to pass the winter; so in Gr. θερίζω and χειμάζω), Varr. R. R. 2, 1: mihi greges in Apuliā hibernabant, qui in Reatinibus montibus aestivabant, id. ib. 2, 2: intra saepem aestivant pastores opacam, Plin. 12, 5, 11, § 22; Suet. Galb. 4; id. Vesp. 24; Stat. S. 4, 4, 22.

aestīvus, a, um, adj. [aestas],

  1. I. of or pertaining to summer, summer-like, summer (freq. and class.): Quo pacto aestivis e partibus Aegocerotis Brumalīs adeat flexus, turns from the hot region of heaven to the wintry sign of Capricorn, Lucr. 5, 615; so id. 5, 639: aestivos menses rei militari dare, hibernos juris dictioni, Cic. Att. 5, 14: tempora, dies, summer time, summer days, id. Verr. 2, 5, 31: sol, Verg. G. 4, 28: aura, Hor. C. 1, 22, 18: umbra, Ov. M. 13, 793: rus, Mart. 8, 61: per aestivos saltus deviasque calles exercitum ducimus, through woods, where flocks were driven for summer pasture, Liv. 22, 14: aves, summer birds, id. 5, 6: animalia, the insects of summer, Plin. 9, 47, 71, § 154: expeditiones, which were undertaken in summer, Vell. 2, 114: castra, a summer camp (constructed differently from a winter camp), Suet. Claud. 1.
  2. II. Subst.: aestīva, ōrum, n.
    1. A. For a summer camp, τὰ θερινά: dum in aestivis essemus, Cic. Att. 5, 17; id. Fam. 2, 13: aestiva praetoris, of a pleasure-camp, pleasurehouse, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 37.
    2. B. The time appropriate for a campaign (cf. aestas; often continuing until December; v. Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 2, 7); hence, a campaign, Cic. Pis. 40: aestivis confectis, after the campaign was ended (which did not take place until the Saturnalia, XIV. Kal. Januar.), id. Fam. 3, 9 fin.: perducere aestiva in mensem Decembrem, Vell. 2, 105.
    3. C. Summer pastures for cattle: per montium aestiva, Plin. 24, 6, 19, § 28.
      Meton. for the cattle themselves: Nec singula morbi Corpora corripiunt, sed tota aestiva, Verg. G. 3, 472.
      Hence, * adv.: aestīvē, in a summer-like manner, as in summer: admodum aestive viaticati sumus, we are furnished in a very summer-like manner with money for our journey, i. e. we have but little (the figure taken from the light dress of summer; or, acc. to others, from the scanty provisions which soldiers took with them in summer), Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 30.

* aestŭābundus, a, um, adj. [aestuo], foaming, fermenting: confectio, Pall. 11, 17.

aestŭans, antis, Part. of aestuo.

aestŭārĭum, i, n. [aestus].

  1. I. A part of the sea-coast which, during the flood-tide, is overflowed, but at the ebb-tide is left covered with mud or slime, a marsh, ἀνάχυσις: aestuaria sunt omnia, quā mare vicissim tum accedit, tum recedit, Gloss. ap. Fest. p. 380 Müll.: pedestria esse itinera concisa aestuariis, Caes. B. G. 3, 9: adfunditur autem aestuarium e mari flexuoso meatu, Plin. 5, 1, 1, § 3; Plin. Ep. 9, 23.
  2. II. A channel extending inland from the sea, and only filled with water at floodtide, a creek, inlet, Varr. R. R. 3, 17: in aestuaria ac paludes, Caes. B. G. 2, 28 Herz.; Tac. A. 2, 8; cf. id. Agr. 22.
  3. III. In mining t. t., an air-hole, air-shaft: secundum puteum dextra ac sinistra fodiunt aestuaria, Plin. 31, 3, 28, § 49; cf. Vitr. 8, 7; Pall. 9, 9.

aestŭātĭo, ōnis, f. [aestuo], a boiling up, foaming; trop., trouble or agitation of mind, Plin. 18, 1, 1, § 5, where Jan reads aestimatione.

aestŭo, āvi, ātum, 1, v. n. [aestus], to be in agilation or in violent commotion, to move to and fro, to rage, to toss, to boil up.

  1. I. Lit.
    1. A. Of fire, to rage, burn: aestuat ut clausis rapidus fornacibus ignis, as the fire heaves and roars in the closed furnaces, Verg. G. 4, 263: tectus magis aestuat ignis, Ov. M. 4, 64.
      1. 2. Of the effect of fire, to be warm or hot, to burn, glow; both objectively, I am warm (Fr. je suis chaud), and subjectively, it is warm to me, I feel warm (Fr. j’ai chaud).
        1. a. Object.: nunc dum occasio est, dum scribilitae aestuant (while the cakes are warm) occurrite, Plaut. Poen. prol. 43; Verg. G. 1, 107: torridus aestuat aër, glows, Prop. 3, 24, 3; Luc. 1, 16.
        2. b. Subject., to feel warmth or heat (weaker than sudare, to sweat, and opp. algere, to be cold, to feel cold; v. Doed. Syn. 3, 89): Lycurgi leges erudiunt juventutem esuriendo, sitiendo, algendo, aestuando, Cic. Tusc. 2, 14, 34: ille cum aestuaret, umbram secutus est, id. Ac. 2, 22: sub pondere, Ov. M. 12, 514; Juv. 3, 103.
    2. B. Of the undulating, heaving motion of the sea, to rise in waves or billows (cf. aestus): Maura unda, Hor. C. 2, 6, 4: gurges, Verg. A. 6, 296.
    3. C. Of other things, to have an undulating, waving motion, to be tossed, to heave: in ossibus umor, Verg. G. 4, 308: ventis pulsa aestuat arbor, Lucr. 5, 1097; Gell. 17, 11, 5.
      Of an agitated crowd, Prud. 11, 228.
  2. II. Trop.
    1. A. Of the passions, love, desire, envy, jealousy, etc., to burn with desire, to be in violent, passionate excitement, to be agitated or excited, to be inflamed: quod ubi auditum est, aestuare (hist. inf.) illi, qui dederant pecuniam, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 23: quae cum dies noctesque aestuans agitaret, Sall. J. 93: desiderio alicujus, Cic. Fam. 7, 18: invidiā, Sall. C. 23: ingens in corde pudor, Verg. A. 12, 666: at rex Odrysius in illa Aestuat, Ov. M. 6, 490 (cf. uri in id. ib. 7, 22; and ardere in id, ib. 9, 724); Mart. 9, 23: aestuat (Alexander) infelix angusto limite mundi (the figure is derived from the swelling and raging of the sea when confined), Juv. 10, 169; so Luc. 6, 63.
    2. B. Esp. in prose, to waver, to vacillate, to hesitate, to be uncertain or in doubt, to be undecided: dubitatione, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 30: quod petiit, spernit; repetit quod nuper omisit; Aestuat et vitae disconvenit ordine toto, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 99: sic anceps inter utramque animus aestuat, Quint. 10, 7, 33; Suet. Claud. 4: aestuante rege, Just. 1, 10.

aestŭōsus, a, um, adj. [aestus], full of agitation or heat.

  1. I. Very hot: aura, Pac. ap. Prisc. p. 710 P.: aestuosa et pulverulenta via, Cic. Att. 5, 14; Hor. Epod. 16, 62: auster, Plin. 2, 47, 48, § 119: aestuosissimi dies, id. 34, 12, 28, § 116: Syrtes, the burning Syrtes, Hor. C. 1, 22, 5; hence, Oraclum Jovis inter aestuosi, i. e. of Jupiter Ammon in the Libyan desert, Cat. 7, 5.
  2. II. Great ly agitated, in violent ebullition: freta, Hor. C. 2, 7, 16.
    Hence, adv.: aestŭōsē, hotly, impetuously, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 67.
    Comp., Hor. Epod. 3, 18.
    Sup. prob. not used.

aestus, ūs (archaic gen. aesti, Pac. 97 Rib.; rare form of nom. plur. aestuus). m. [kind. with aestas and Gr. αἴθω; v. aestas], an undulating, boiling, waving, tossing; a waving, heaving, billowy motion.

  1. I. Lit.
    1. A. Of fire; hence, in gen., fire, glow, heat (orig. in relation to its flashing up; while fervor denotes a glowing, ardor a burning, and calor a warming heat; yet it was early used for warming heat; v. the following example): nam fretus ipse anni permiscet frigus et aestum, heat and cold are blended, Lucr. 6, 364 (for which calor, id. 6, 368, 371 al.): multa aestu victa per agros, id. 5, 1104: exsuperant flammae, furit aestus ad auras, Verg. A. 2, 759: caniculae, Hor. C. 1, 17, 18; so id. Ep. 1, 8, 5: labore et aestu languidus, Sall. J. 51.
      In plur.: neque frigora neque aestus facile tolerabat, Suet. Aug. 81.
      So of midday heat: aestibus at mediis umbrosam exquirere vallem, Verg. G. 3, 331 (cf. Cic. Ac. 2, 22: ille cum aestuaret, umbram secutus est).
      And of the heat of disease (of wounds, fever, inflammation, etc.): ulceris aestus, Att. ap. Cic. Tusc. 2, 7, 19: homines aegri cum aestu febrique jactantur, Cic. Cat. 1, 13.
    2. B. The undulating, heaving motion of the sea, the swell, surge: fervet aestu pelagus, Pac. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 39; hence, meton. for the sea in agitation, waves, billows: delphines aestum secabant, Verg. A. 8, 674: furit aestus harenis, id. ib. 1, 107: aestus totos campos inundaverant, Curt. 9, 9, 18.
      In Verg. once of the boiling up of water in a vessel: exsultant aestu latices, Aen. 7, 464.
    3. C. Esp., the periodical flux and reflux or ebb and flow of the sea, the tide (cf. Varr. L. L. 9, 19; Mel. 3, 1: aestus maris accedere et reciprocare maxime mirum, pluribus quidem modis, sed causa in sole lunāque, Plin. 2, 97, 99); Plaut. As. 1, 3, 6: quid de fretis aut de marinis aestibus dicam? quorum accessus et recessus (flow and ebb) lunae motu gubernantur, Cic. Div. 2, 14 fin.: crescens, Plin. 2, 100, 97, § 219: decedens, id. ib.: recedens, id. 2, 98, 101, § 220: secundus, in our favor, Sall. Fragm. ap. Gell. 10, 26, 2: adversus, against us, id. ap. Non. 138, 8.
  2. II. Trop.
    1. A. The passionate ferment or commotion of the mind, the fire, glow, ardor of any (even a good) passion (cf. aestuo, II. A.): et belli magnos commovit funditus aestus (genus humanum), has stirred up from their very bottom the waves of discord, Lucr. 5, 1434: civilis belli aestus, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 47 (cf. id. C. 2, 7, 15): repente te quasi quidam aestus ingenii tui procul a terrā abripuit atque in altum abstraxit, Cic. de Or. 3, 36: hunc absorbuit aestus quidam gloriae, id. Brut. 81: stultorum regum et populorum continet aestus, Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 8: perstet et, ut pelagi, sic pectoris adjuvet aestum, the glow of love, Ov. H. 16, 25.
    2. B. A vacillating, irresolute state of mind, doubt, uncertainty, hesitation, trouble, embarrassment, anxiely: qui tibi aestus, qui error, quae tenebrae, Cic. Div. in Caecin. 14: vario fluctuat aestu, Verg. A. 12, 486: amor magno irarum fluctuat aestu, id. ib. 4, 532; cf. id. ib. 8, 19: aestus curaeque graves, Hor. S. 1, 2, 110.
    3. C. In the Epicurean philos. lang. of Lucretius, the undulatory flow or stream of atoms, atomic efflux, as the cause of perception (cf. affluo, I.): Perpetuoque fluunt certis ab rebus odores, Frigus ut a fluviis, calor ab sole, aestus ab undis Aequoris, exesor moerorum litora propter, etc., Lucr. 6, 926; and in id. 6, 1002 sq., the magnetic fluid is several times designated by aestus lapidis.