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ăquaeductus (ăquae ductus; also ductus ăquae, Vitr. 8, 6: ăquārum ductus, Plin. 16, 42, 81, § 224; Vitr. 8, 6, 3; and ductus ăquārum, Suet. Claud. 20), ūs, m., a conveyance of water, an aqueduct, a conduit (cf.: (Appius) aquam in urbem duxit, Liv. 9, 29): De aquae ductu probe fecisti, Cic. Att. 13, 6: usque ad Collem aquae ductūs, Vulg. 2 Reg. 2, 24: fecitque aquae ductum, ib. 3 Reg. 18, 32; ib. Isa. 7, 3 al.; also, the right of conducting water to some place, Cic. Caecin. 26; cf. Dig. 8, 3, 1. On the aqueducts of Rome, v. Smith, Dict. Antiq., s. v. aquaeductus.

bellātor, ōris (ancient form duellā-tor, Plaut. Capt. prol. 68; cf. the letter B), m. [bello].

  1. I. A warrior, soldier (as capable of fighting, while miles signifies a soldier by profession; class.): domi bellique duellatores optimi, Plaut. Capt. prol. 68: si tu ad legionem bellator clues, at ego in culinā Ares, id. Truc. 2, 7, 54; id. Mil. 4, 2, 85; id. Trin. 3, 2, 97; id. Curc. 4, 3, 21; id. Bacch. 4, 9, 3; id. Ep. 3, 4, 56; id. Truc. 2, 7, 68; Cic. Balb. 23, 54: quis est, qui aut bellatori, aut imperatori, aut oratori quaerat aliquid, etc., id. Tusc. 4, 24, 53; 4, 19, 43: ecqua pacifica persona desideretur an in bellatore sint omnia, id. Att. 8, 12, 4: adeo Sulla dissimilis fuit bellator ac victor, ut, etc., Vell. 2, 25, 3: primus bellator duxque, Liv. 9, 1, 2: fortes (opp. otiosi urbani), id. 5, 20, 6; 8, 8, 17; 7, 26, 13; 1, 59, 9; Tac. A. 1, 67; 4, 49; Ov. A. A. 3, 359; Juv. 8, 10; 13, 168; Claud. Cons. Stil. 3, 12; Vulg. Isa. 3, 2 al.
    Humorously of champion drinkers, Plaut. Men. 1, 3, 5.
  2. II. Esp. (like amator, arator, venator, etc.; v. Zumpt, Gr. § 102; in close apposition with another subst., and taking the place of an adj.), warlike, ready to fight, martial, valorous (mostly poet.): bellator Turnus, Verg. A. 12, 614: bellator deus, the war-god Mars, id. ib. 9, 721.
    So esp. freq. equus, a spirited, mettlesome horse, Verg. G. 2, 145; id. A. 10, 891; 11, 89; Ov. M. 15, 368; id. F. 2, 12; Val. Fl. 2, 385; Tac. G. 14.
    Also absol.: feroci Bellatore sedens, Juv. 7, 127: taurus, Stat. Th. 12, 603.
    Transf., of inanim. things: campus, the field of battle, Stat. Th. 8, 378: ensis, Sil. 13, 376; and of a stone used in play, Ov. A. A. 3, 359.

bellĭcōsus (duellĭc-), a, um, adj. [bellicus], warlike, martial, valorous (mostly poet.; usu. of personal subjects; cf. bellicus): gentes immanes et barbarae et bellicosae, Cic. Prov. Cons. 13, 33: bellicosissimae nationes, id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28; id. Fam. 5, 11, 3; Caes. B. G. 1, 10; 4, 1; Sall. J. 18, 12; Nep. Ham. 4, 1; Hor. C. 2. 11, 1; 3, 3, 57: provincia, Caes. B. C. 1, 85; Quint. 1, 10, 20: civitas, Suet. Gram. 1: fortissimus quisque ac bellicosissimus, Tac. G. 15.
Comp., Liv. 37, 8, 4.
Trop.: quod multo bellicosius erat Romanam virtutem ferociamque cepisse, i. e. fortius, Liv. 9, 6, 13: bellicosior annus, a more warlike year, id. 10, 9, 10 (cf. the opp. imbellis annus, id. 10, 1, 4).
Adv. not in use.

bellĭcus (duellĭcus), a, um, adj. [bellum], of or pertaining to war, war-, military.

  1. I. In gen.
    1. A. Lit.: ars duellica, Plaut. Ep. 3, 4, 14: bellicam rem administrari majores nostri nisi auspicato noluerunt, Cic. Div. 2, 36, 76; Hor. C. 4, 3, 6; Suet. Calig. 43: disciplina, Cic. N. D. 2, 64, 161: jus, id. Off. 3, 29, 107: virtus, id. Mur. 10, 22: laus, military glory, id. Brut. 21, 84; Caes. B. G. 6, 24: laudes, Cic. Off. 1, 22, 78: gloria, Tac. A. 1, 52: caerimoniae, Liv. 1, 32, 5: certamina, Flor. 4, 12, 58: ignis, proceeding from the enemy, Liv. 30, 5, 8: tubicen, Ov. M. 3, 705: rostra, Tib. 2, 3, 40: navis, Prop. 2 (3), 15, 43: turba, id. 3 (4), 14, 13: parma, id. 2 (3), 25, 8: nomina, appellatives obtained by valorous deeds in war (as Africanus, Asiaticus, Macedonicus, etc.), Flor. 3, 8, 1: nubes, the misfortune of war, Claud. Laus. Seren. 196: columella. Fest. p. 27; cf. Bellona.
      Hence, subst.: bellĭcum, i, n., a signal for march or for the beginning of an attack (given by the trumpet); always in the connection bellicum canere, to give the signal for breaking up camp, for an attack, for commencing hostilities: Philippum, ubi primum bellicum cani audisset, arma capturum, at the first signal will be ready to take arms, etc., Liv 35, 18, 6: simul atque aliqui motus novus bellicum canere coepit, causes the war-trumpet to sound, Cic. Mur. 14, 30; Just. 12, 15, 11; App de Mundo, p. 71, 37.
    2. B. Trop.: idem bellicum me cecinisse dicunt. aroused, incited, Cic. Phil. 7, 1, 3.
      And of fiery, inflammatory discourse: alter (Thucydides) incitatior fertur et de bellicis rebus canit etiam quodammodo bellicum, sounds the alarm, Cic. Or 12, 39: non eosdem modos adhibent, cum bellicum est canendum, et cum posito genu supplicandum est, Quint. 9, 4, 11; 10, 1, 33.
  2. II. Transf., poet., = bellicosus, warlike, fierce in war: Pallas, Ov. M. 5, 46: dea, id. ib. 2, 752; id. F. 3, 814: virgo, id. M. 4, 754: Mars, id. F. 3, 1: deus, i.e. Romulus, id. ib. 2, 478: civitas, devoted to war, Vell. 2, 38, 3.
    Of animals: equorum duellica proles, * Lucr. 2, 661.

Bellōna (old form Duellōna; cf. Varr. L. L. 7, § 49 Müll., and the letter B), ae. f. [Bellona a bello nunc, quae Duellona a duello, Varr. L. L. 5, § 73 Müll.]: ’Ενυώ, ’Εριννύς, θεὰ πολεμική, Gloss., the goddess of war, sister of Mars, whose temple, built by Appius Claudius Cœcus (Inscr. Orell. 539). in the ninth district of the city, was situated not far from the Circus Maximus, Publ. Vict. Descr. Urb.
A place of assemblage for the Senate for proceedings with persons who were not allowed entrance into the city, Liv. 26, 21, 1; 28, 9, 5; 30, 21, 12 al.; Verg. A. 8, 703; Hor. S. 2, 3, 223: Bellona dicebatur dea bellorum, ante cujus templum erat columella, quae Bellica vocabatur, super quam hastam jaciebant, cum bellum indicebatur, Paul. ex Fest. p. 33 Müll.; cf. Ov. F. 6, 201 sq.; Serv. ad Verg. A. 9, 53: cos. SENATVM. CONSOLVERVNT. N. OCTOB. APVD. AEDEM. DVELONAI., S. C. Bacch., v. Append.; Plaut. Am. prol. 43; Ov. M. 5, 155; Sen. Herc. Oet. 1313; Claud. in Prob. et Olybr. Cons. 121; id. in Ruf. 1, 342; 2, 263; id. IV. Cons. Hon. 12; Eutr. 1, 314; 2, 110; 2, 145; Claud. Laud. Stil. 2, 371; id. B. Get. 34; 466; Petr. 124, 256; Inscr. Orell. 1903; 2316. Her priests (turba entheata Bellonae, Mart. 12, 57, 11: Bellōnārii, ōrum, Acron. ad Hor. S. 2, 3, 223 dub.) and priestesses were accustomed, in their mystic festivals. especially on the 20th of March (hence dies sanguinis, Treb. Claud. 6; cf. Inscr. Orell. 2318), to gash their arms and shoulders with knives, and thus to offer their blood, Tib. 1, 6, 45 sq.; Juv. 4, 123; Luc. 1, 565; Tert. Apol. 9; Lact. 1, 21, 16; Min. Fel. Oct. 30, 5.

bellum (ante-class. and poet. duel-lum), i, n. [Sanscr. dva, dvi, dus; cf. Germ. zwei; Engl. two, twice; for the change from initial du- to b-, cf. bis for duis, and v. the letter B, and Varr. L. L. 5, § 73 Müll.; 7, § 49 ib.], war.

  1. I. Form duellum: duellum, bellum, videlicet quod duabus partibus de victoriā contendentibus dimicatur. Inde est perduellis, qui pertinaciter retinet bellum, Paul. ex Fest. p. 66, 17 Müll.: bellum antea duellum vocatum eo quod duae sunt dimicantium partesPostea mutatā litterā dictum bellum, Isid. Orig. 18, 1, 9: hos pestis necuit, pars occidit illa duellis, Enn. ap. Prisc. p. 9, 861 P. (Ann. v. 549 Vahl.): legiones reveniunt domum Exstincto duello maximo atque internecatis hostibus, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 35: quae domi duellique male fecisti, id. As. 3, 2, 13.
    So in archaic style, or in citations from ancient documents: quique agent rem duelli, Cic. Leg. 2, 8, 21: aes atque ferrum, duelli instrumenta, id. ib. 2, 18, 45 (translated from the Platonic laws): puro pioque duello quaerendas (res) censeo, Liv. 1, 32, 12 (quoted from ancient transactions); so, quod duellum populo Romano cum Carthaginiensi est, id. 22, 10, 2: victoriaque duelli populi Romani erit, id. 23, 11, 2: si duellum quod cum rege Antiocho sumi populus jussit, id. 36, 2, 2; and from an ancient inscriptionduello magno dirimendo, etc., id. 40, 52, 5.
    Poet.: hicPacem duello miscuit, Hor. C. 3, 5, 38: cadum Marsi memorem duelli, id. ib. 3, 14, 18: vacuum duellis Janum Quirini clausit, id. ib. 4, 15, 8; cf. id. Ep. 1, 2, 7; 2, 1, 254; 2, 2, 98; Ov. F. 6, 201; Juv. 1, 169
  2. II. Form bellum.
    1. A. War, warfare (abstr.), or a war, the war (concr.), i.e. hostilities between two nations (cf. tumultus).
      1. 1. Specifying the enemy.
        1. a. By adjj. denoting the nation: omnibus Punicis Siciliensibusque bellis, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 47, § 124: aliquot annis ante secundum Punicum bellum, id. Ac. 2, 5, 13: Britannicum bellum, id. Att. 4, 16, 13: Gallicum, id. Prov. Cons. 14, 35: Germanicum, Caes. B. G. 3, 28: Sabinum, Liv. 1, 26, 4: Parthicum, Vell. 2, 46, 2; similarly: bellum piraticum, the war against the pirates, Vell. 2, 33, 1.
          Sometimes the adj. refers to the leader or king of the enemy: Sertorianum bellum, Cic. Phil. 11, 8, 18: Mithridaticum, id. Imp. Pomp. 3, 7: Jugurthinum, Hor. Epod. 9, 23; Vell. 2, 11, 1; similarly: bellum regium, the war against kings, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 50.
          Or it refers to the theatre of the war: bellum Africanum, Transalpinum, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: Asiaticum, id. ib. 22, 64: Africum, Caes. B. C. 2, 32 fin.: Actiacum, Vell. 2, 86, 3: Hispaniense, id. 2, 55, 2.
        2. b. With gen. of the name of the nation or its leader: bellum Latinorum, the Latin war, i. e. against the Latins, Cic. N. D. 2, 2, 6: Venetorum, Caes. B. G. 3, 16: Helvetiorum, id. ib. 1, 40 fin.; 1, 30: Ambiorigis, id. ib. 6, 29, 4: Pyrrhi, Philippi, Cic. Phil. 11, 7, 17: Samnitium, Liv. 7, 29, 2.
        3. c. With cum and abl. of the name.
          1. (α) Attributively: cum Jugurthā, cum Cimbris, cum Teutonis bellum, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 20, 60: belli causā cum Samnitibus, Liv. 7, 29, 3: hunc finem bellum cum Philippo habuit, id. 33, 35, 12: novum cum Antiocho instabat bellum, id. 36, 36, 7; cf. id. 35, 40, 1; 38, 58, 8; 39, 1, 8; 44, 14, 7.
          2. (β) With cum dependent on the verb: quia bellum Aetolis esse dixi cum Aliis, Plaut. Capt. prol. 59: novi consulesduo bella habuerealterum cum Tiburtibus, Liv. 7, 17, 2; esp. with gero, v. 2. b. α infra.
        4. d. With adversus and acc. of the name.
          1. (α) Attributively: bellum adversus Philippum, Liv. 31, 1, 8: bellum populus adversus Vestinos jussit, id. 8, 29, 6.
          2. (β) With adversus dependent on the verb: quod homines populi Hermunduli adversus populum Romanum bellum fecere, Cincius ap. Gell. 16, 14, 1: nos pro vobis bellum suscepimus adversus Philippum. Liv. 31, 31, 18: ut multo acrius adversus duos quam adversus unum pararet bellum, id. 45, 11, 8: bellum quod rex adversus Datamem susceperat, Nep. Dat. 8, 5.
        5. e. With contra and acc.: cum bellum nefarium contra aras et focos, contra vitam fortunasque nostrasnon comparari, sed geri jam viderem, Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 1: causam belli contra patriam inferendi, id. ib. 2, 22, 53.
        6. f. With in and acc. (very rare): Athenienses in Peloponnesios sexto et vicesimo anno bellum gerentes, Nep. Lys. 1, 1.
        7. g. With inter and acc.: hic finis belli inter Romanos ac Persea fuit, Liv. 45, 9, 2.
        8. h. With apud and acc.: secutum est bellum gestum apud Mutinam, Nep. Att. 9, 1.
        9. k. With dat. of the enemy after inferre and facere, v. 2. a. κ infra.
      2. 2. With verbs.
        1. a. Referring to the beginning of the war.
          1. (α) Bellum movere or commovere, to bring about, stir up a war: summa erat observatio in bello movendo, Cic. Off. 1, 11, 37: bellum commotum a Scapulā, id. Fam. 9, 13, 1: nuntiabant alii … in Apuliā servile bellum moveri, Sall. C. 30, 2: is primum Volscis bellum in ducentos ampliusannos movit, Liv. 1, 53, 2: insequenti anno Veiens bellum motum, id. 4, 58, 6: dii pium movere bellum, id. 8, 6, 4; cf. Verg. A. 10, 627; id. G. 1, 509; so, concitare, Liv. 7, 27, 5; and ciere (poet.), Verg. A. 1, 541; 6, 829; 12, 158.
          2. (β) Bellum parare, comparare, apparare, or se praeparare bello, to prepare a war, or for a war: cum tam pestiferum bellum pararet, Cic. Att. 9, 13, 3: bellum utrimque summopere parabatur, Liv. 1, 23, 1; cf. id. 45, 11, 8 (v. II. A. 1. d. β supra); Nep. Hann. 2, 6; Quint. 12, 3, 5; Ov. M. 7, 456; so, parare alicui, Nep. Alcib. 9, 5: bellum terrā et mari comparat, Cic. Att. 10, 4, 3: tantum bellum … Cn. Pompeius extremā hieme apparavit, ineunte vere suscepit, mediā aestate confecit, id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 3, 5: bellum omnium consensu apparari coeptum, Liv. 4, 55, 7: numquam imperator ita paci credit, ut non se praeparet bello, Sen. Vit. Beat. 26, 2.
          3. (γ) Bellum differre, to postpone a war: nec jam poterat bellum differri, Liv. 2, 30, 7: mors Hamilcaris et pueritia Hannibalis distulerunt bellum, id. 21, 2, 3; cf. id. 5, 5, 3.
          4. (δ) Bellum sumere, to undertake, begin a war (not in Cæsar): omne bellum sumi facile, ceterum aegerrume desinere, Sall. J. 83, 1: prius tamen omnia pati decrevit quam bellum sumere, id. ib. 20, 5: de integro bellum sumit, id. ib. 62, 9: iis haec maxima ratio belli sumendi fuerat, Liv. 38, 19, 3: sumi bellum etiam ab ignavis, strenuissimi cujusque periculo geri, Tac. H. 4, 69; cf. id. A. 2, 45; 13, 34; 15, 5; 15, 7; id. Agr. 16.
            (ε) Bellum suscipere (rarely inire), to undertake, commence a war, join in a war: bellum ita suscipiatur ut nihil nisi pax quaesita videatur, Cic. Off. 1, 23, 80: suscipienda quidem bella sunt ob eam causam ut, etc., id. ib. 1, 11, 35: judicavit a plerisque ignorationebellum esse susceptum, join, id. Marcell. 5, 13; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 35 (v. supra): cum avertisset plebem a suscipiendo bello, undertaking, Liv. 4, 58, 14: senatui cum Camillo agi placuit ut bellum Etruscum susciperet, id. 6, 9, 5: bella non causis inita, sed ut eorum merces fuit, Vell. 2, 3, 3.
            (ζ) Bellum consentire = bellum consensu decernere, to decree a war by agreement, to ratify a declaration of war (rare): consensit et senatus bellum, Liv. 8, 6, 8: bellum erat consensum, id. 1, 32, 12.
            (η) Bellum alicui mandare, committere, decernere, dare, gerendum dare, ad aliquem deferre, or aliquem bello praeficere, praeponere, to assign a war to one as a commander, to give one the chief command in a war: sed ne tum quidem populus Romanus ad privatum detulit bellum, Cic. Phil. 11, 8, 18: populus Romanus consulibellum gerendum dedit, id. ib.: cur noneidemhoc quoque bellum regium committamus? id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 50: Camillus cui id bellum mandatum erat, Liv. 5, 26, 3: Volscum bellum M. Furio extra ordinem decretum, id. 6, 22, 6: Gallicum bellum Popilio extra ordinem datum, id. 7, 23, 2: quo die a vobis maritimo bello praepositus est imperator, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44: cum ei (bello) imperatorem praeficere possitis, in quo sit eximia belli scientia, id. ib. 16, 49: hunc toti bello praefecerunt, Caes. B. G. 5, 11 fin.: alicui bellum suscipiendum dare, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 19, 58: bellum administrandum permittere, id. ib. 21, 61.
            (θ) Bellum indicere alicui, to declare war against (the regular expression; coupled with facere in the ancient formula of the pater patratus), also bellum denuntiare: ob eam rem egopopulo Hermundulo … bellum (in)dico facioque, Cincius ap. Gell. 16, 14, 1: ob eam rem ego populusque Romanus populisLatinis bellum indico facioque, Liv. 1, 32, 13: Corinthiis bellum indicamus an non? Cic. Inv. 1, 12, 17: ex quo intellegi potest, nullum bellum esse justum nisi quod aut rebus repetitis geratur, aut denuntiatum ante sit et indictum, id. Off. 1, 11, 36; id. Rep. 3, 23, 35: bellum indici posse existimabat, Liv. 1, 22, 4: ni reddantur (res) bellum indicere jussos, id. 1, 22, 6: utnec gererentur solum sed etiam indicerentur bella aliquo ritu, jusdescripsit quo res repetuntur, id. 1, 32, 5; cf. id. 1, 32, 9; 2, 18, 11; 2, 38, 5; Verg. A. 7, 616.
            (κ) Bellum inferre alicui (cf. contra aliquem, 1. e. supra; also bellum facere; absol., with dat., or with cum and abl.), to begin a war against (with), to make war on: Denseletis nefarium bellum intulisti, Cic. Pis. 34, 84: ei civitati bellum indici atque inferri solere, id. Verr. 2, 1, 31, § 79: qui sibi Galliaeque bellum intulissent, Caes. B. G. 4, 16; Nep. Them. 2, 4; Verg. A. 3, 248: bellumne populo Romano Lampsacena civitas facere conabatur? Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 31, § 79: bellum patriae faciet, id. Mil. 23, 63; id. Cat. 3, 9, 22: civitatem Eburonum populo Romano bellum facere ausam, Caes. B. G. 5, 28; cf. id. ib. 7, 2; 3, 29: constituit bellum facere, Sall. C. 26, 5; 24, 2: occupant bellum facere, they are the first to begin the war, Liv. 1, 14, 4: ut bellum cum Priscis Latinis fieret, id. 1, 32, 13: populus Palaepolitanis bellum fieri jussit, id. 8, 22, 8; cf. Nep. Dion, 4, 3; id. Ages. 2, 1.
            Coupled with instruere, to sustain a war: urbs quae bellum facere atque instruere possit, Cic. Agr. 2, 28, 77.
            Bellum facere had become obsolete at Seneca’s time, Sen. Ep. 114, 17.
            (λ) Bellum oritur or exoritur, a war begins: subito bellum in Galliā ex, ortum est, Caes. B. G. 3, 7: aliud multo propius bellum ortum, Liv. 1, 14, 4: Veiens bellum exortum, id. 2, 53, 1.
        2. b. Referring to the carrying on of the war: bellum gerere, to carry on a war; absol., with cum and abl., per and acc., or in and abl. (cf.: bellum gerere in aliquem, 1. a. and f. supra): nisi forte ego vobiscessare nunc videor cum bella non gero, Cic. Sen. 6, 18: cum Celtiberis, cum Cimbris bellum ut cum inimicis gerebatur, id. Off. 1, 12, 38: cum ei bellum ut cum rege Perse gereret obtigisset, id. Div. 1, 46, 103: erant hae difficultates belli gerendi, Caes. B. G. 3, 10: bellum cum Germanis gerere constituit, id. ib. 4, 6: Cn. Pompeius in extremis terris bellum gerebat, Sall. C. 16, 5: bellum quod Hannibale duce Carthaginienses cum populo Romano gessere, Liv. 21, 1, 1: alter consul in Sabinis bellum gessit, id. 2, 62, 3: de exercitibus per quos id bellum gereretur, id. 23, 25, 5: Chabrias bella in Aegypto suā sponte gessit, Nep. Chabr, 2, 1.
          Sometimes bellum administrare only of the commander, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 15, 43; Nep. Chabr. 2, 1.
          Also (very rare): bellum bellare, Liv. 8, 40, 1 (but belligerantes is absol., Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38; Ann. v. 201 Vahl.); in the same sense: bellum agere, Nep. Hann. 8, 3.
          As a synonym: bello persequi aliquem, Nep. Con. 4, 1; cf. Liv. 3, 25, 3.
          1. (β) Trahere or ducere bellum, to protract a war: necesse est enim aut trahi id bellum, aut, etc., Cic. Att. 10, 8, 2: bellum trahi non posse, Sall. J. 23, 2: belli trahendi causā, Liv. 5, 11, 8: morae quā trahebant bellum paenitebat, id. 9, 27, 5: suadere institui ut bellum duceret, Cic. Fam. 7, 3, 2: bellum enim ducetur, id. ad Brut. 1, 18, 6; Nep. Alcib. 8, 1; id. Dat. 8, 4; similarly: cum his molliter et per dilationes bellum geri oportet? Liv. 5, 5, 1.
          2. (γ) Bellum repellere, defendere, or propulsare, to ward off, defend one’s self against a war: bellum Gallicum C. Caesare imperatore gestum est, antea tantummodo repulsum, Cic. Prov. Cons. 13, 32: quod bellum non intulerit sed defenderit, Caes. B. G. 1, 44: Samnitium vix a se ipsis eo tempore propulsantium bellum, Liv. 8, 37, 5.
        3. c. Referring to the end of a war.
          1. (α) Bellum deponere, ponere, or omittere, to give up, discontinue a war: in quo (i.e. bello) et gerendo et deponendo jus ut plurimum valeret lege sanximus, Cic. Leg. 2, 14, 34: (bellum) cum deponi victores velint, Sall. J. 83, 1: bellum decem ferme annis ante depositum erat, Liv. 31, 1, 8: nos depositum a vobis bellum et ipsi omisimus, id. 31, 31, 19: dicit posse condicionibus bellum poni, Sall. J. 112, 1: bellum grave cum Etruriā positum est, id. H. Fragm. 1, 9 Dietsch: velut posito bello, Liv. 1, 53, 5: manere bellum quod positum simuletur, id. 1, 53, 7: posito ubique bello, Tac. H. 2, 52; cf. Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 93; Verg. A. 1, 291: omisso Romano bello Porsinna filium Arruntem Ariciammittit, Liv. 2, 14, 5.
          2. (β) Bellum componere, to end a war by agreement, make peace: timerent ne bellum componeretur, Cic. Fam. 10, 33, 3: si bellum compositum foret, Sall. J. 97, 2: belli componendi licentiam, id. ib. 103, 3; cf. Nep. Ham. 1, 5; id. Hann. 6, 2; id. Alcib. 8, 3; Verg. A. 12, 109; similarly: bellum sedare, Nep. Dat. 8, 5.
          3. (γ) Bellum conficere, perficere, finire, to finish, end a war; conficere (the most usual term) and perficere, = to finish a war by conquering; finire (rare), without implying success: is bellum confecerit qui Antonium oppresserit, Cic. Fam. 11, 12, 2: bellumque maximum conficies, id. Rep. 6, 11, 11: confecto Mithridatico bello, id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; cf. id. Fam. 5, 10, 3; id. Imp. Pomp. 14, 42: quo proeliobellum Venetorum confectum est, Caes. B. G. 3, 16; cf. id. ib. 1, 30; 1, 44; 1, 54; 3, 28; 4, 16: bello confecto de Rhodiis consultum est, Sall. C. 51, 5; cf. id. J. 36, 1; 114, 3: neminem nisi bello confecto pecuniam petiturum esse, Liv. 24, 18, 11; cf. id. 21, 40, 11; 23, 6, 2; 31, 47, 4; 32, 32, 6; 36, 2, 3: bello perfecto, Caes. B. C. 3, 18, 5; Liv. 1, 38, 3: se quo die hostem vidisset perfecturum (i. e. bellum), id. 22, 38, 7; 31, 4, 2; cf. id. 3, 24, 1; 34, 6, 12; Just. 5, 2, 11: neque desiturum antequam finitum aliquā tolerabili condicione bellum videro, Liv. 23, 12, 10: finito ex maximā parte.. italico bello, Vell. 2, 17, 1; Curt. 3, 1, 9; Tac. A. 15, 17; Just. 16, 2, 6; 24, 1, 8; Verg. A. 11, 116.
        4. d. Less usual connections: bellum delere: non modo praesentia sed etiam futura bella delevit, Cic. Lael. 3, 11; cf. Nep. Alcib. 8, 4: alere ac fovere bellum, Liv. 42, 11, 5: bellum navare alicui, Tac. H. 5, 25: spargere, id. A. 3, 21; id. Agr. 38; Luc. 2, 682: serere, Liv. 21, 10, 4: circumferre, Tac. A. 13, 37: exercere, id. ib. 6, 31: quam celeriter belli impetus navigavit ( = quam celeriter navale bellum gestum est), Cic. Imp. Pomp. 12, 34; so Flor. 2, 2, 17: bellum ascendit in rupes, id. 4, 12, 4: bellum serpit in proximos, id. 2, 9, 4; cf. id. 2, 2, 15: bella narrare, Cic. Or. 9, 30: canere bella, Quint. 10, 1, 91: bella legere, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28.
      3. 3. As object denoting place or time.
        1. a. Proficisci ad bellum, to depart for the war.
          1. (α) Of the commander: consul sortitu ad bellum profectus, Cic. Phil. 14, 2, 4; cf. id. Cat. 1, 13, 33: ipse ad bellum Ambiorigis profectus, Caes. B. G. 6, 29, 4: ut duo ex tribunis ad bellum proficiscerentur, Liv. 4, 45, 7; cf. id. 6, 2, 9: Nep. Alcib. 4, 1; Sall. H. 2, 96 Dietsch.
            Post-class.: in bellum, Just. 2, 11, 9; Gell. 17, 9, 8.
          2. (β) Of persons partaking in a war: si proficiscerer ad bellum, Cic. Fam. 7, 3, 1.
        2. b. Ad bellum mittere, of the commander, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 50; 21, 62.
        3. c. In bella ruere, Verg. A. 7, 782; 9, 182: in bella sequi, id. ib. 8, 547.
        4. d. Of time.
          1. (α) In the locative case belli, in war, during war; generally with domi ( = domi militiaeque): valete, judices justissimi, domi bellique duellatores, Plaut. Capt. prol. 68; so, domi duellique, id. As. 3, 2, 13 (v. I. supra): quibuscunque rebus vel belli vel domi poterunt rem publicam augeant, Cic. Off. 2, 24, 85: paucorum arbitrio belli domique agitabatur, Sall. J. 41, 7: animus belli ingens, domi modicus, id. ib. 63, 2; Liv. 2, 50, 11; 1, 36, 6; so id. 3, 43, 1; cf.: bello domique, id. 1, 34, 12: domi belloque, id. 9, 26, 21; and: neque bello, neque domi, id. 4, 35, 3.
            Without domi: simul rem et gloriam armis belli repperi, Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 60 (where belli may be taken with gloriam; cf. Wagn. ad loc.): magnae res temporibus illis a fortissimis virisbelli gerebantur, Cic. Rep. 2, 32, 86.
          2. (β) In bello or in bellis, during war or wars, in the war, in the wars; with adj.: ad haec quae in civili bello fecerit, Cic. Phil. 2, 19, 47; cf. id. ib. 14, 8, 22: in ipso bello eadem sensi, id. Marcell. 5, 14: in Volsco bello virtus enituit, Liv. 2, 24, 8: in eo bello, id. 23, 46, 6: in Punicis bellis, Plin.8, 14, 14, § 37: in bello Trojano, id. 30, 1, 2, § 5.
            Without adj.: ut fit in bello, capitur alter filius, Plaut. Capt. prol. 25: qui in bello occiderunt, Cic. Fam. 9, 5, 2: quod in bello saepius vindicatum est in eos, etc., Sall. C. 9, 4: non in bello solum, sed etiam in pace, Liv. 1, 15, 8; 2, 23, 2: in bello parta, Quint. 5, 10, 42; 12, 1, 28.
          3. (γ) Abl. bello or bellis = in bello or in bellis (freq.); with adjj.: nos semper omnibus Punicis Siciliensibusque bellis amicitiam fidemque populi Romani secuti sumus. Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 47, § 124: bello Italico, id. Pis. 36, 87: Veienti bello, id. Div. 1, 44, 100: domestico bello, id. Planc. 29, 70: qui Volsco, Aurunco Sabinoque militassent bello, Liv. 23, 12, 11: victor tot intra paucos dies bellis, id. 2, 27, 1: nullo bello, multis tamen proeliis victus, id. 9, 18, 9: bello civili, Quint. 11, 1, 36.
            With gen.: praesentiam saepe divi suam declarant, ut et apud Regillum bello Latinorum, Cic. N. D. 2, 2, 6: suam felicitatem Helvetiorum bello esse perspectam, Caes. B. G. 1, 40.
            Without attrib.: qui etiam bello victis regibus regna reddere consuevit, Cic. Sest. 26, 57: res pace belloque gestas, Liv. 2, 1, 1: egregieque rebus bello gestis, id. 1, 33, 9; so id. 23, 12, 11: ludi bello voti, id. 4, 35. 3: princeps pace belloque, id. 7, 1, 9: Cotyn bello juvisse Persea, id. 45, 42, 7: bello parta, Quint. 5, 10, 15; cf. id. 7, 4, 22; Ov. M. 8, 19.
          4. (δ) Inter bellum (rare): cujus originis morem necesse estinter bellum natum esse, Liv. 2, 14, 2: inter haec bella consulesfacti, id. 2, 63, 1.
      4. 4. Bellum in attributive connection.
        1. a. Justum bellum.
          1. (α) A righteous war, Cic. Off. 1, 11, 36 (v. II. A. 2. a. θ supra): justum piumque bellum, Liv. 1, 23, 4: non loquor apud recusantem justa bella populum, id. 7, 30, 17; so Ov. M. 8, 58; cf.: illa injusta sunt bella quae sine causā suscepta sunt, Cic. Rep. 3, 23, 35.
          2. (β) A regular war (opp. a raid, etc.): in fines Romanos excucurrerunt, populabundi magis quam justi more belli, Liv. 1, 15, 1.
        2. b. For the different kinds of war: domesticum, civile, intestinum, externum, navale, maritimum, terrā marique gestum, servile, sociale; v. hh. vv.
        3. c. Belli eventus or exitus, the result of a war: quicunque belli eventus fuisset, Cic. Marcell. 8, 24: haud sane alio animo belli eventum exspectabant, Sall. C. 37, 9: eventus tamen belli minus miserabilem dimicationem fecit, Liv. 1, 23, 2; cf. id. 7, 11, 1: exitus hujus calamitosissimi belli, Cic. Fam. 6, 21, 1: cum esset incertus exitus et anceps fortuna belli, id. Marcell. 5, 15; so id. Off. 2, 8, [??]: Britannici belli exitus exspectatur, id. Att. 4, 16, 13: cetera bella maximeque Veiens incerti exitus erant, Liv. 5, 16, 8.
        4. d. Fortuna belli, the chances of war: adeo varia fortuna belli ancepsque Mars fuit ut, Liv. 21, 1, 2; cf. Cic. Marcell. 5, 15 (v. c. supra).
        5. e. Belli artes, military skill: cuilibet superiorum regum belli pacisque et artibus et gloriā par, Liv. 1, 35, 1: haud ignotas belli artes, id. 21, 1, 2: temperata et belli et pacis artibus erat civitas, id. 1, 21, 6.
        6. f. Jus belli, the law of war: jura belli, the rights (law) of war: in re publicā maxime servanda sunt jura belli, Cic. Off. 1, 11, 34: sunt et belli sicut pacis jura, Liv. 5, 27, 6: jure belli res vindicatur, Gai. Inst. 3, 94.
        7. g. Belli duces praestantissimos, the most excellent captains, generals, Cic. Or. 1, 2, 7: trium simul bellorum victor, a victor in three wars, Liv. 6, 4, 1 (cf.: victor tot bellis, id. 2, 27, 1).
        8. h. Belli vulnera, Cic. Marcell. 8, 24.
    2. B. Transf.
      1. 1. Of things concr. and abstr.: qui parietibus, qui tectis, qui columnis ac postibus meisbellum intulistis, Cic. Dom. 23, 60: bellum contra aras et focos, id. Phil. 3, 1, 1: miror cur philosophiaebellum indixeris, id. Or. 2, 37, 155: ventri Indico bellum, Hor. S. 1, 5, 8.
      2. 2. Of animals: milvo est quoddam bellum quasi naturale cum corvo, Cic. N. D. 2, 49, 125: hanc Juno Esse jussit gruem, populisque suis indicere bellum, Ov. M. 6, 92.
      3. 3. With individuals: quid mihi opu’st … cum eis gerere bellum, etc., Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 14: nihil turpius quam cum eo bellum gerere quīcum familiariter vixeris, Cic. Lael. 21, 77: cum mihi uni cum improbis aeternum videam bellum susceptum, id. Sull. 9, 28: hoc tibi juventus Romana indicimus bellum, Liv. 2, 12, 11: falsum testem justo ac pio bello persequebatur, id. 3, 25, 3: tribunicium domi bellum patres territat, id. 3, 24, 1; cf. Plin. Ep. 1, 2, 57.
        Ironically: equus Trojanus qui tot invictos viros muliebre bellum gerentes tulerit ac texerit, Cic. Cael. 28, 67.
      4. 4. In mal. part., Hor. C. 3, 26, 3; 4, 1, 2.
      5. 5. Personified as god of war ( = Janus): tabulas duas quae Belli faciem pictam habent, Plin. 35, 4, 10, § 27: sunt geminae Belli portae, etc., Verg. A. 7, 607: mortiferumque averso in limine Bellum, id. ib. 6, 279.
      6. 6. Plur.: bella, army (poet.): permanet Aonius Nereus violentus in undis, Bellaque non transfert (i.e. Graecorum exercitum), Ov. M. 12, 24: sed victae fera bella deae vexere per aequora, Sil. 7, 472: quid faciat bellis obsessus et undis? Stat. Th. 9, 490.
      7. 7. Battle, = proelium: rorarii dicti a rore: qui bellum committebant ante, Varr. L. L. 7, 3, 92: quod in bello saepius vindicatum in eos quitardius, revocati, bello excesserant, Sall. C. 9, 4: praecipua laus ejus belli penes consules fuit, Liv. 8, 10, 7: commisso statim bello, Front. Strat. 1, 11, 2: Actia bella, Verg. A. 8, 675: ingentem pugnam, ceu cetera nusquam Bella forent, id. ib. 2, 439; cf. Flor. 3, 5, 11; Just. 2, 12; 18, 1 fin.; 24, 8; Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 98 (form duellum); Ov. H. 1, 1, 69; Verg. A. 8, 547; 12, 390; 12, 633; Stat. Th. 3, 666.
      8. 8. Bellum = liber de bello: quam gaudebat Bello suo Punico Naevius! Cic. Sen. 14, 50.

bĭdens (old form duidens), entis (abl. bidenti, Lucr. 5, 209; Verg. Cir. 212; Pomp. ap. Gell. 16, 6, 7: bidente, Tib. 2, 3, 6; Verg. Cat. 8, 9; Plin. 17, 21, 35, § 159; gen. plur. bidentium, Hor. C. 3, 23, 14: bidentum, Ov. M. 15, 575), adj. [bis-dens], with two teeth (not in Cic.).

  1. I. Adj.
    1. A. Lit.: amica, i.e. anus, Auct. Priap. 82: bos, Paul. ex Fest. p. 35 Müll.: hostiae, Plin. 8, 51, 77, § 206.
    2. B. Transf., with two prongs, points, etc.: ancora, Plin. 7, 56, 57, § 209: forfex, Verg. Cat. 8, 9: ferrum = forfex, id. Cir. 212.
  2. II. Subst.
    1. A. Masc., a heavy hoe or mattock with two crooked iron teeth; Gr. δίκελλα: valido bidenti ingemere, Lucr. 5, 209: Tib. 1, 1, 29; 1, 10, 49; 2, 3, 6: glaebam fran/gere bidentibus, Verg. G. 2, 400: duros jactare bidentis, id. ib. 2, 355: durus bidens et vomer aduncus, Ov. F. 4, 927: bidentibus soli terga convertere, Col. 4, 14, 1; 4, 17, 8; Pall. Jul. 5; cf. id. ib. 1, 43, 1; Dig. 33, 7, 8 al.
      Hence, meton. for agriculture: bidentis amans, Juv. 3, 228.
    2. B. Fem. (old form duidens, Paul. ex Fest. p. 66 Müll.; cf. the letter B), an animal for sacrifice (swine, sheep, ox): bidentes hostiae, quae per aetatem duos dentes altiores habent, Jul. Hyg. ap. Gell. 16, 6, 14: bidentes sunt oves duos dentes longiores ceteris habentes, Paul. ex Fest. p. 33 Müll.; Isid. Orig. 12, 1, 9. It is more correct to understand by bidens an animal for sacrifice whose two rows of teeth are complete; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 4 Müll.: ambidens sive bidens ovis appellabatur, quae superioribus et inferioribus est dentibus, and in Heb. [??], the dual of [??], of the two rows of teeth; v. Gesen. Heb. Lex. under [??]: mactant lectas de more bidentīs Legiferae Cereri, Verg. A. 4, 57 Forbig. ad loc; id. ib. 7, 93; 12, 170; * Hor. C. 3, 23, 14; Ov. M. 10, 227; 15, 575; Pompon. ap. Gell. 16, 6, 7; Plin. 8, 51, 77, § 206.
      Transf. from the lang. of offerings to a general use = ovis, a sheep, Phaedr. 1, 17, 8.

Bŏna Dea (Dīva), the good goddess, worshipped by the women of Rome as the goddess of chastity and fertility. No man was permitted to enter her temple; but in later times it became the resort of unchaste women, and the scene of license, Macr. S. 1, 12, 21 sqq.; Ov. A. A. 3, 244; cf. also id. ib. 3, 637; Juv. 2, 84 sq.; 6, 314. Clodius invaded this sanctuary, and is hence called by Cicero the priest of the Bona Dea, Cic. Att. 2, 4, 2; id. Har. Resp. 17, 37.

bŏnus (old form dŭonus, Carm. Sall. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 26 Müll.; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 67 Müll.), a, um, adj. [for duonus, cf. bellum, bis, and cf. root dvi-; hence δείδω, δέος], good; comp. melior, us [cf. Gr. μάλα, μᾶλλον], better; sup. optimus (optu-mus, ante-class. and often class.) [root opof ops, opes; cf. copia, apiscor], best.

  1. I. Attributively.
    1. A. As adjunct of nouns denoting persons.
      1. 1. Vir bonus.
          1. (α) A man morally good (καλὸς κἀγαθός): quoniam boni me viri pauperant, improbi alunt, Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 60: omnibus virtutibus instructos et ornatos tum sapientes, tum viros bonos dicimus, Cic. Tusc. 5, 10, 28: ille vir bonus quiintolerabili dolore lacerari potius quam aut officium prodat aut fidem, id. Ac. 2, 8, 23: sive vir bonus est is qui prodest quibus potest, nocet nemini, certe istum virum bonum non facile reperimus, id. Off. 3, 15, 64: qui se ita gerunt ut eorum probitas, fides, integritas, etc. … hos viros bonosappellandos putemus, id. Lael. 5, 19: non intellegunt se de callido homine loqui, non de bono viro, id. Att. 7, 2, 4: ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime esse alios improbos suspicatur, id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 4, § 12: nec enim melior vir fuit Africano quisquam, nec clarior, id. Lael. 2, 6; id. Leg. 1, 14, 41; 1, 18, 48; id. Planc. 4, 9; id. Par. 3, 1, 21; id. Marcell. 6, 20; id. Fam. 7, 21; id. Off. 2, 16, 57.
          2. (β) An honest man: justitia, ex quā viri boni nominantur, Cic. Off. 1, 7, 21; 1, 44, 155; 2, 11, 39; 2, 12, 42; 2, 20, 71; 3, 12, 50: cum is sponsionem fecisset ni vir bonus esset, id. ib. 3, 19, 77: quoniam Demosthenes nec vir bonus esset, nec bene meritus de civitate, id. Opt. Gen. 7, 20; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 40, 116.
          3. (γ) A man of good standing in the community: id viri boni arbitratu deducetur, Cato, R. R. 143; so id. ib. 149: tuam partem viri bono arbitratudari oportet, Dig. 17, 1, 35; 37, 6, 2, § 2: quem voles virum bonum nominato, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 55: vir bonus estquo res sponsore, et quo causae teste tenentur, Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 40.
            Hence, ironically of wealthy men: praetores jus dicunt, aediles ludos parant, viri boni usuras perscribunt, Cic. Att. 9, 12, 3.
          4. (δ) Ironically of bad men: sed eccum lenonem Lycum, bonum virum, Plaut. Poen. 5, 5, 52; Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 9; 4, 3, 18; id. Ad. 3, 4, 30: expectabam quinam isti viri boni testes hujus manifesto deprehensi veneni dicerentur, Cic. Cael. 26, 63: nam socer ejus, vir multum bonus est, id. Agr. 3, 3, 13; so especially in addresses (mostly comic.): age tu, illuc procede, bone vir! Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 1; id. Curc. 5, 2, 12; id. Ps. 4, 7, 48; id. Pers. 5, 2, 11; Ter. And. 3, 5, 10; 5, 2, 5; id. Ad. 4, 2, 17; id. Eun. 5, 2, 11: quid tu, vir optime? Ecquid habes quod dicas? Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 104.
            (ε) Sometimes boni viri = boni, in the sense of optimates (v. I. A. 3.): bonis viris quid juris reliquit tribunatus C. Gracchi? Cic. Leg. 3, 9, 20.
            (ζ) As a conventional courtesy: homines optimi non intellegunt, etc., Cic. Fin. 1, 7, 25: bone accusator, id. Rosc. Am. 21, 58: sic illum amicum vocasti, quomodo omnes candidatos bonos viros dicimus, gentlemen, Sen. Ep. 3, 1.
            For bonus vir, a good husband, v. 3.; and for vir optimus, as a laudatory epithet, v. 5.
      2. 2. Boni homines (rare) = boni, better classes of society, v. II. A. 3: in foro infimo boni homines atque dites ambulant, Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 14.
      3. 3. With nouns denoting persons in regard to their functions, offices, occupations, and qualities, denoting excellence: bonus consul, Liv. 4, 40, 6; 22, 39, 2 (different: consules duos, bonos quidem, sed dumtaxat bonos, amisimus, consuls of good sentiments, almost = bad consuls, Cic. ad Brut. 1, 3, 4): boni tribuni plebis, Cic. Phil. 1, 10, 25: bonus senator, id. Prov. Cons. 15, 37: senator bonus, id. Dom. 4, 8: bonus judex, id. Verr. 2, 4, 15, § 34: bonus augur (ironically), id. Phil. 2, 32, 80: bonus vates, Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 27: bonus imperator, Sall. C. 60, 4: bonus dux, Quint. 12, 1, 43 (cf. trop.: naturam, optimam ducem, the best guide, Cic. Sen. 2, 5): bonus miles, Sall. C. 60, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 15, 5: bonus orator, Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10: optimus orator, id. Opt. Gen. 1, 3: poëta bonus, id. de Or. 1, 3, 11; 2, 46, 194; id. Fin. 1, 3, 10: scriptor bonus, Quint. 10, 1, 104: bonus advocatus, id. 5, 13, 10: bonus defensor, id. 5, 13, 3: bonus altercator, a good debater, id. 6, 4, 10: bonus praeceptor, id. 5, 13, 44; 10, 5, 22: bonus gubernator, Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 100: optimus opifex, Hor. S. 1, 3, 133: sutor bonus, id. ib. 1, 3, 125: actor optimus, Cic. Sest. 57, 122: cantor optimus est modulator, Hor. S. 1, 3, 130: melior gladiator, Ov. Tr. 4, 6, 33: agricola (colonus, dominus) bonus, Cato, R. R. prooem.; Cic. Sen. 16, 56: bonus paterfamilias, a thrifty head of the house, Nep. Att. 13, 1: bonus servus, Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 58; id. Am. 2, 1, 46; id. Men. 5, 6, 1; Cic. Mil. 22, 58: dominus bonus, Cato, R. R. 14: bonus custos, Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 38.
        Ironically, Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 57: filius bonus, Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 9: patres, Quint. 11, 3, 178: parens, id. 6, prooem. 4: bonus (melior, optimus), viz. a good husband, Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 51 sq.; Liv. 1, 9, 15: uxor melior, Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52: amicus, id. Fam. 2, 15, 3: amicus optimus, Plaut. Cas. 3, 3, 18: optimus testis, Cic. Fam. 7, 27, 2: auctor, in two senses, good authority, id. Att. 5, 12, 3; and = bonus scriptor (post-class.), Quint. 10, 1, 74.
        Esp.: bonus civis (rarely civis bonus): in re publicā ea velle quae tranquilla et honesta sint: talem enim solemus et sentire bonum civem et dicere, Cic.-Off. 1, 34, 124: eaque est summa ratio et sapientia boni civis, commoda civium non divellere, atque omnes aequitate eādem continere, id. ib. 2, 23, 83: eum esse civem et fidelem et bonum, Plaut. Pers. 1, 2, 15; Cic. Fam. 2, 8, 2; 1, 9, 10; 3, 12, 1; 6, 6, 11; id. Off. 1, 44, 155; Liv. 22, 39, 3; Sall. H. Fragm. 1, 10 Dietsch: optimus et fortissimus civis, Cic. Fam. 12, 2, 3; id. Sest. 17, 39.
      4. 4. Bonus and optimus as epithets of the gods.
          1. (α) In gen.: sed te bonus Mercurius perdat, Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 23: fatabonique divi, Hor. C. 4, 2, 38: divis orte bonis, id. ib. 4, 5, 1: O bone deus! Scrib. Comp. 84 fin.: BONORVM DEORVM, Inscr. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 84: totidem, pater optime, dixi, Tu mihi da cives, referring to Jupiter, Ov. M. 7, 627.
          2. (β) Optimus Maximus, a standing epithet of Jupiter: (Juppiter) a majoribus nostris Optimus Maximus (nominatur), et quidem ante optimus, id est beneficentissimus, quam Maximus, Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 64: Jovem optimum et maximum ob eas res appellant, non quod, etc., id. ib. 3, 36, 87: in templo Jovis Optimi Maximi, id. Sest. 56, 129; id. Prov. Cons. 9, 22: nutu Jovis Optimi Maximi, id. Cat. 3, 9, 21; Liv. 1, 12, 7; id. 6, 16, 2.
          3. (γ) Di boni, O di boni, expressing indignation, sorrow, or surprise: di boni, hunc visitavi antidhac! Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 16: di boni, boni quid porto! Ter. And. 2, 2, 1: di boni, quid hoc morbi est, id. Eun. 2, 1, 19; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 13; id. Ad. 3, 3, 86: alter, O di boni, quam taeter incedebat! Cic. Sest. 8, 19; id. Brut. 84, 288; id. Phil. 2, 8, 20; 2, 32, 80; id. Att. 1, 16, 5; 14, 21, 2; Val. Max. 3, 5, 1; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3.
          4. (δ) Bona Dea, etc., v. 6.
      5. 5. Optimus as a laudatory epithet.
          1. (α) Vir optimus: per vos nobis, per optimos viros optimis civibus periculum inferre conantur, Cic. Sest. 1, 2: virum optimum et constantissimum M. Cispium, id. ib. 35, 76: fratrem meum, virum optimum, fortissimum, id. ib.: consolabor hos praesentes, viros optimos, id. Balb. 19, 44; id. Planc. 21, 51; 23, 55; id. Mil. 14, 38; id. Marcell. 4, 10; id. Att. 5, 1, 5; Hor. S. 1, 6, 53.
          2. (β) Femina bona, optima: tua conjunx bona femina, Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 16: hujus sanctissimae feminae atque optimae pater, id. ib.
          3. (γ) Senex, pater, frater, etc.: optimus: parentes ejus, prudentissimi atque optimi senis, Cic. Planc. 41, 97: insuevit pater optimus hoc me, Hor. S. 1, 4, 105; 2, 1, 12: C. Marcelli, fratris optimi, Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 6; id. Q. Fr. 2, 6 (8), 2; 2, 4, 2.
          4. (δ) With proper names (poet.): optimus Vergilius, Hor. S. 1, 6, 54: Maecenas optimus, id. ib. 1, 5, 27: optime Quinti, id. Ep. 1, 16, 1.
            (ε) Esp. as an epithet of the Roman emperors: quid tam civile, tam senatorium quam illud, additum a nobis Optimi cognomen? Plin. Pan. 2, 7: gratias, inquit, ago, optime Princeps! Sen. Tranq. 14. 4: ex epistulā optimi imperatoris Antonini, Gai. Inst. 1, 102; cf.: bene te patriae pater optime Caesar, Ov. F. 2, 637: optime Romulae Custos gentis, Hor. C. 4, 5, 1.
      6. 6. Bonus and Bona, names of deities.
          1. (α) Bona Dea, the goddess of Chastity, whose temple could not be entered by males (cf. Macr. S. 1, 12; Lact. 1, 22): Bonae Deae pulvinaribus, Cic. Pis. 39, 95; id. Mil. 31, 86; id. Fam. 1, 9, 15; cf. in mal. part., Juv. 2, 86 sq.; 6, 314 sq.; 6, 335 sq.
          2. (β) Bonus Eventus, Varr. R. R. 1, 1 med.; Amm. 29, 6, 19; Inscr. Orell. 907; 1780 sq.
          3. (γ) Bona Fortuna: si bona Fortuna veniat, ne intromiseris, Plaut. Aul. 1, 3, 22: Bonae Fortunae (signum), Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3, § 7: FORTVNAE BONAE DOMESTICAE, Inscr. Orell. 1743 sq.
          4. (δ) Bona Spes: Spes Bona, obsecro, subventa mihi, Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 12: BONAE SPEI, Aug. Inscr. Grut. 1075, 1.
            (ε) BONA MENS, Inscr. Orell. 1818 sqq.: Mens Bona, si qua dea es, tua me in sacraria dono, Prop. 3, 24, 19.
    2. B. With nouns denoting things.
      1. 1. Things concrete, denoting excellence: navis bona dicitur non quae pretiosis coloribus picta estsed stabilis et firma, Sen. Ep. 76, 13: gladium bonum dices, non cui auratus est balteus, etc., sed cui et ad secandum subtilis acies est, et, etc., id. ib. 76, 14: id vinum erit lene et bono colore, Cato, R. R. 109; Lucr. 2, 418; Ov. Am. 2, 7, 9: tabulascollocare in bono lumine, Cic. Brut. 75, 261: ex quāvis oleā oleumbonum fieri potest. Cato, R. R. 3: per aestatem boves aquam bonam et liquidam bibant semper curato, id. ib. 73; cf.: bonae aquae, ironically compared to wine, Prop. 2, 33 (3, 31), 28: praedium bonum caelum habeat, good temperature, Cato, R. R. 1: bonā tempestate, in good weather, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 4: (praedium) solo bono valeat, by good soil, Cato, R. R. 1: bonae (aedes) cum curantur male, Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 24: villam bonam, Cic. Off. 3, 13, 55: bonus pons, Cat. 17, 5: scyphi optimi (= optime facti), Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32: perbona toreumata, id. ib. 2, 4, 18, § 38: bona domicilia, comfortable residences, id. N. D. 2, 37, 95: agrum Meliorem nemo habet, Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 12: fundum meliorem, Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52: fundos optimos et fructuosissimos, id. Agr. 3, 4, 14: equus melior, id. Inv. 1, 31, 52: bona cena, Cat. 13, 3: boni nummi, good, not counterfeit, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 144; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 91: super omnia vultus accessere boni, good looks, Ov. M. 8, 678: mulier bonā formā, of a fine form, Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 13: equus formae melioris, Hor. S. 2, 7, 52: tam bona cervix, simul ac jussero, demetur, fine, beautiful, Suet. Calig. 33: fruges bonae, Cat. 34, 19: ova suci melioris, of better flavor, Hor. S. 2, 4, 13.
        Trop.: animus aequus optimum est aerumnae condimentum, Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 71: bona dextra, a lucky hand (cf.: bonum omen, 2. e.), Quint. 6, 3, 69: scio te bonā esse voce, ne clama nimis, good, sound, loud voice, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 43; so, bona firmaque vox, Quint. 11, 3, 13.
      2. 2. Things abstract.
        1. a. Of physical well-being: ut si qui neget sine bonā valetudine posse bene vivi, Cic. Inv. 1, 51, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 2; Lucr. 3, 102; Val. Max. 2, 5, 6; Quint. 10, 3, 26; 11, 2, 35 et saep.: non bonus somnus de prandio est, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 8: bona aetas, prime of life, Cic. Sen. 14, 48: optimā aetate, id. Fam. 10, 3, 3.
          Ironically: bonā, inquis, aetate, etc., Sen. Ep. 76, 1.
        2. b. Of the mind and soul: meliore esse sensu, Cic. Sest. 21, 47: optima indoles, id. Fin. 5, 22, 61: bona conscientia, Quint. 6, 1, 33; 9, 2, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 5: bono ingenio me esse ornatam quam auro multo mavolo, with a good heart, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 91; id. Stich. 1, 21, 59; Sall. C. 10, 5: mens melior, Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 78; Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13; Liv. 39, 16, 5; Sen. Ben. 1, 11, 4; id. Ep. 10, 4; Pers. 2, 8; Petr. 61.
          Personified, Prop. 3 (4), 24, 19; Ov. Am. 1, 2, 31: duos optimae indolis filios, Val. Max. 5, 7, 2; Sen. Ben. 6, 16, 6; Quint. 1, 2, 5: bonum consilium, Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 6; id. Rud. 4, 3, 18; Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121: bona voluntas, a good purpose, Quint. 12, 11, 31: memoria bona, Cic. Att. 8, 4, 2: bona ratio cum perditāconfligit, id. Cat. 2, 11, 25: bonae rationes, Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 50: pronuntiatio bona, Auct. Her. 3, 15, 27.
        3. c. Of moral relations: ego si bonam famam mihi servasso, sat ero dives, Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 71; Cic. Sest. 66, 139; Liv. 6, 11, 7; Hor. S. 1, 2, 61 (cf. Cic. Att. 7, 26, 1; v. e. infra): si ego in causā tam bonā cessi tribuni plebis furori, Cic. Sest. 16, 36; id. Planc. 36, 87; Ov. M. 5, 220: fac, sis, bonae frugi sies, of good, regular habits, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 35; id. Cas. 2, 4, 5; 2, 5, 19; id. Ps. 1, 5, 53; id. Truc. 1, 1, 13; id. Capt. 5, 2, 3 sq. (v. frux, II. B. 1. β.): vilicus disciplinā bonā utatur. Cato, R. R. 5: bona studia, moral pursuits, Auct. Her. 4, 17, 25: quidquid vitā meliore parasti, Hor. S. 2, 3, 15: ad spem mortis melioris, an honorable death; so as an epithet of religious exercises: Juppiter, te bonas preces precor, Cato, R. R. 134; 139.
        4. d. Of external, artistic, and literary value and usefulness: bono usui estis nulli, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 15: Optumo optume optumam operam das, id. Am. 1, 1, 122: bonam dedistis mihi operam, a valuable service to me, id. Poen. 2, 3, 70; 3, 6, 11; id. Pers. 4, 7, 11; id. Rud. 3, 6, 11 (in a different sense: me bonā operā aut malā Tibi inventurum esse auxilium argentarium, by fair or unfair means, id. Ps. 1, 1, 102; v. e. infra): optima hereditas a patribus traditur liberisgloria virtutis rerumque gestarum, Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121: bonum otium, valuable leisure, Sall. C. 4, 1: bonis versibus, Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74: versus meliores, Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 81: meliora poemata, Hor. A. P. 303: in illā pro Ctesiphonte oratione longe optimā, Cic. Or. 8, 26: optimas fabulas, id. Off. 1, 31, 114: melius munus, id. Ac. 1, 2, 7.
        5. e. Favorable, prosperous, lucky, fortunate: de Procilio rumores non boni, unfavorable rumors, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 5: bona de Domitio, praeclara de Afranio fama est, about their success in the war, id. ib. 7, 26, 1: si fuisset in discipulo comparando meliore fortunā, id. Pis. 29, 71; cf. fortunā optimā esse, to be in the best pecuniary circumstances, id. ad Brut. 1, 1, 2: occasio tam bona, Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 9: senex est eo meliore condicione quam adulesoens cum, etc., Cic. Sen. 19, 68; id. Fam. 4, 32: bona navigatio, id. N. D. 3, 34, 83; esp. in phrase bona spes.
          Object.: ergo in iis adulescentibus bonam spem esse dicemus et magnam indolem quos, etc., Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 117.
          Subject.: ego sum spe bonā, Cic. Fam. 12, 28, 3; id. Cat. 2, 11, 25; id. Att. 14, 1 a, 3; id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5, § 16: optimā spe, id. Fam. 12, 11, 2.
          Pregn., = spes bonarum rerum, Sall. C. 21, 1; v. C. 1. c. infra: meliora responsa, more favorable, Liv. 7, 21, 6: melior interpretatio, Tac. H. 3, 65: cum laude et bonis recordationibus, id. A. 4, 38: amnis Doctus iter melius, i. e. less injurious, Hor. A. P. 68: omen bonum, a good, lucky omen, Cic. Pis. 13, 31; cf. Liv. praef. § 13: melius omen, Ov. F. 1, 221; optimum, Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 2: bona scaeva, Plaut. Stich. 5, 2, 24: auspicio optumo, id. ib. 3, 2, 6; cf.: memini bene, sed meliore Tempore dicam = opportuniore tempore, Hor. S. 1, 9, 68.
        6. f. Of public affairs, si mihi bonā re publicā frui non licuerit, Cic. Mil. 34, 93: optima res publica, id. Or. 1, 1, 1; id. Phil. 1, 8, 19: minus bonis temporibus, id. Dom. 4, 8; so, optimis temporibus, id. Sest. 3, 6: nostrae res meliore loco videbantur, id. ad Brut. 1, 3, 1: lex optima, id. Pis. 16, 37; id. Sest. 64, 137; id. Phil, 1, 8, 19.
        7. g. Good = large, considerable: bono atque amplo lucro, Plaut. Am. prol. 6: bona librorum copia, Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 109; cf.: bona copia cornu, Ov. M. 9, 88; v. bona pars, C. 8. γ.
        8. h. Noble; with genus, good family, noble extraction, honorable birth: quali me arbitraris genere prognatum? Eu. Bono, Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 35; so id. Ep. 1, 2, 4; 2, 1, 3; id. Pers. 4, 4, 94: si bono genere natus sit, Auct. Her. 3, 7, 13.
        9. k. Referring to good-will, kindness, faithfulness, in certain phrases.
          1. (α) Bonā veniā or cum bonā veniā, with the kind permission of a person addressed, especially bonā veniā orare, expetere, etc.: primum abs te hoc bonā veniā expeto, Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 31: bonā tuā veniā dixerim, Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 34: orāvit bonā veniā Quirites, ne, etc., Liv. 7, 41, 3: obsecro vos.. bonā veniā vestrā liceat, etc., id. 6, 40, 10: cum bonā veniā quaeso audiatis, etc., id. 29, 17, 6; Arn. c. Gent. 1, p. 5; cf.. sed des veniam bonus oro = veniā bonā oro, Hor. S. 2, 4, 5.
          2. (β) Bona pax, without quarrelling: bona pax sit potius, let us have no quarrel about that, Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 7; so especially cum bonā pace, or bonā pace: Hannibal ad Alpis cum bonā pace incolentiumpervenit, without a difficulty with the inhabitants, Liv. 21, 32, 6; 21, 24, 5; 1, 24, 3; 28, 37, 4; 8, 15, 1; cf.: si bonam (pacem) dederitis, = a fair peace, under acceptable conditions, id. 8, 21, 4.
          3. (γ) Amicitia bona = bonā fide servata, faithful, undisturbed friendship: igitur amicitia Masinissae bona atque honesta nobis permansit, Sall. J. 5, 5.
          4. (δ) Bona societas, alliance: Segestes, memoriā bonae societatis, impavidus, Tac. A. 1, 58.
    3. C. In particular phrases.
      1. 1. Bonae res.
        1. a. = Vitae commoda, comforts of life, abstract or concrete: concedatur bonis rebus homines morte privari, Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 87: optimis rebus usus est, he had every most desirable thing, Nep. Att. 18, 1.
        2. b. = Res secundae, opp. res adversae, prosperity: bonis rebus tuis, meas irrides malas, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 45: in bonis rebus, Hor. C. 2, 3, 2.
        3. c. Res bona = res familiaris bona, wealth (poet.): in re bonā esse, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4.
          Also an object of value: homines quibus mala abunde omnia erant, sed neque res neque spes bona ulla, who had no property, nor the hope of any, Sall. C. 21, 1.
        4. d. Costly things, articles of luxury: capere urbem in Arabiā plenam bonarum rerum, Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 46; 4, 4, 82: nimium rei bonae, id. Stich. 2, 3, 55: ignorantia bonarum rerum, Nep. Ages. 8, 5’ bonis rebus gaudere, Hor. S. 2, 6, 110: re bonā copiosum esse, Gell. 16, 19, 7.
        5. e. Moral, morally good: illi cum res non bonas tractent, Cic. Ac. 2, 33, 72: ut de virtutibus et vitiis, omninoque de bonis rebus et malis quaererent, id. ib. 1, 4, 15: quid habemus in rebus bonis et malis explorati? id. ib. 2, 42, 129; so id. Or. 1, 10, 42; id. Leg. 1, 22, 58: quae tamen omnia dulciora fuint et moribus bonis et artibus, id. Sen. 18, 65.
        6. f. In literary composition, important or interesting matter, subjects, or questions: res bonas verbis electis dictas quis non legat? Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 8: studiis generorum, praesertim in re bonā, Plaut. Am. 8, 26.
      2. 2. Bonae artes.
          1. (α) A good, laudable way of dealing: qui praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit, Sall. C. 2, 9: huic bonae artes desunt, dolis atque fallaciis contendit, id. ib. 11, 2: quod is bonarum artium cupiens erat, Tac. A. 6, 46.
          2. (β) Liberal arts and sciences: litteris aut ulli bonae arti, Quint. 12, 1, 7: conservate civem bonarum artium, bonarum partium, bonorum virorum, Cic. Sest. 32, 77.
            Esp.: optimae artes: optimarum artium scientia, Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 4; id. Ac. 2, 1, 1; id. Cael. 10, 24; id. Marcell. 1, 4.
      3. 3. Bona fides, or fides bona.
        1. a. Good faith, i. e. conscious honesty in acts or words: qui nummos fide bonā solvit, who pays (the price of labor) in good faith, i. e. as it is honestly earned, Cato, R. R. 14: dic, bonā fide, tu id aurum non subripuisti? Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 46; 4, 10, 47; id. Capt. 4, 2, 111; id. Most. 3, 1, 137; id. Poen. 1, 3, 30; id. Pers. 4, 3, 16; id. Ps. 4, 6, 33: si tibi optimā fide omnia concessit, Cic. Rosc. Am. 49, 144; Quint. 10, 3, 23.
          Hence, bonae fidei vir, a conscientious man, Quint. 10, 7, 1.
        2. b. Jurid. t. t.
          1. (α) Good faith in contracts and legal acts in general, opposed to dolus malus, honesty and fairness in dealing with another: ad fidem bonam statuit pertinere, notum esse emptori vitium quod nosset venditor, Cic. Off. 3, 16, 67.
            Hence, alienam rem bonā fide emere, to buy, believing the seller to be the rightful owner, Dig. 41, 3, 10; 41, 3, 13, § 1. bonae fidei possessor (also possessio), believing that he is the rightful owner, ib. 5, 3, 25, § 11; 5, 3, 22; 41, 3, 15, § 2; 41, 3, 24: conventio contra bonam fidem et mores bonos, ib. 16, 31, § 7: bonam fidem praestare, to be responsible for one’s good faith, ib. 17, 1, 10 prooem.
            Hence,
          2. (β) Bonae fidei actiones or judicia, actions in equity, i. e. certain classes of actions in which the strict civil law was set aside by the prætorian edict in favor of equity: actiones quaedam bonae fidei sunt, quaedam stricti juris. Bonae fidei sunt haec: exempto vendito, locato conducto, etc., Just. Inst. 4, 6, 28, § 19.
            In the republican time the prætor added in such actions to his formula for the judex the words ex fide bonā, or, in full: quidquid dare facere oportet ex fide bonā, Cic. Off. 3, 16, 66: iste dolus malus et legibus erat vindicatus, et sine lege, judiciis in quibus additur ex fide bonā, id. ib. 3, 15, 61; cf. id. ib. 3, 17, 70.
      4. 4. Bona verba.
          1. (α) Kind words: Bona verba quaeso, Ter. And. 1, 2, 33.
          2. (β) Words of good omen (v. omen): dicamus bona verba, Tib. 2, 2, 1: dicite suffuso ter bona verba mero, Ov. F. 2, 638.
          3. (γ) Elegant or well-chosen expressions: quid est tam furiosum quam verborum vel optimorum atque ornatissimorum sonitus inanis, Cic. Or. 1, 12, 51: verborum bonorum cursu, id. Brut. 66, 233: omnia verba sunt alicubi optima, Quint. 10, 1, 9.
          4. (δ) Moral sayings: non est quod contemnas bona verba et bonis cogitationibus plena praecordia, Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 1.
      5. 5. Bona dicta.
          1. (α) Polite, courteous language: hoc petere me precario a vobis jussit leniter dictis bonis, Plaut. Am. prol. 25.
          2. (β) Witticisms (bon-mots): flammam a sapiente facilius ore in ardente opprimi, quam bona dicta teneat, Enn. ap. Cic. Or. 2, 54, 222: dico unum ridiculum dictum de dictis melioribus quibus solebam menstruales epulas ante adipiscier, Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 22: ibo intro ad libros ut discam de dictis melioribus, id. Stich. 2, 3, 75.
      6. 6. Bona facta.
          1. (α) = bene facta (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.), laudable deeds: nobilitas ambobus et majorum bona facta (sc. erant), Tac. A. 3, 40.
          2. (β) Bonum factum est, colloq., = bene est, bene factum est (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.): bonum factum est, ut edicta servetis mea, Plaut. Poen. prol. 16: haec imperata quae sunt pro imperio histrico, bonum hercle factum (est) pro se quisque ut meminerit, id. ib. 45.
            Hence,
          3. (γ) Elliptically, introducing commands which cannot be enforced, = if you will do so, it will be well: peregrinis in senatum allectis, libellus propositus est: bonum factum, ne quis senatori novo curiam monstrare velit, Suet. Caes. 80: et Chaldaeos edicere: bonum factum, ne Vitelliususquam esset, id. Vit. 14: hac die Carthaginem vici: bonum factum, in Capitolium eamus, et deos supplicemus, Aur. Vict. 49; cf.: o edictum, cui adscribi non poterit bonum factum, Tert. Pud. 1.
      7. 7. Bona gratia.
          1. (α) A friendly understanding: cur non videmus inter nos haec potius cum bonā Ut componantur gratiā quam cum malā? Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 17; so, per gratiam bonam abire, to part with good feelings, Plaut. Mil. 4, 3, 33.
            In jest: sine bonā gratiā abire, of things cast away, Plaut Truc. 2, 7, 15.
          2. (β) Pleon., in the phrase bonam gratiam habere, = gratiam habere, to thank (v. B. 2. k.), Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 32; id. Bacch. 4, 8, 99.
      8. 8. Bona pars.
          1. (α) The well-disposed part of a body of persons: ut plerumque fit, major pars (i. e. of the senate) meliorem vicit, Liv. 21, 4, 1: pars melior senatūs ad meliora responsa trahere, id. 7, 21, 6.
          2. (β) The good party, i. e. the optimates (gen. in plur.): civem bonarum partium, Cic. Sest. 32, 77: (fuit) meliorum partium aliquando, id. Cael. 6, 13: qui sibi gratiam melioris partis velit quaesitam, Liv. 2, 44, 3.
            Paronom.: (Roscius) semper partium in re publicā tam quam in scaenā optimarum, i. e. party and part in a drama, Cic. Sest. 56, 120.
          3. (γ) Of things or persons, a considerable part (cf. a good deal): bonam partem ad te adtulit, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 43: bonam partem sermonis in hunc diem esse dilatam, Cic. Or. 2, 3, 14: bonam magnamque partem exercitūs, Val. Max. 5, 2, ext. 4: bona pars noctium, Quint. 12, 11, 19: bona pars hominum, Hor. S. 1, 1, 61: meae vocisbona pars, id. C. 4, 2, 46; so id. A. P. 297; Ov. P. 1, 8, 74: melior pars diei, Verg. A. 9, 156.
          4. (δ) Rarely, and mostly eccl. Lat.: optima pars, the best part or lot: nostri melior pars animus est, Sen. Q. N. 1, prooem. § 14; cf.: quae pars optima est in homine, best, most valuable, Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 67: major pars aetatis, certe melior reipublicae data sit, Sen. Brev. Vit. 18, 1: Maria optimam partem elegit, quae non auferetur ab , Vulg. Luc. 10, 42.
            (ε) Adverb.: bonam partem = ex magnā parte, Lucr. 6, 1249.
            (ζ) Aliquem in optimam partem cognoscere, to know somebody from his most favorable side, Cic. Off. 2, 13, 46: aliquid in optimam partem accipere, to take something in good part, interpret it most favorably: Caesar mihi ignoscit quod non venerim, seseque in optimam partem id accipere dicit, id. Att. 10, 3 a, 2; id. ad Brut. 1, 2, 3: quaeso ut hoc in bonam partem accipias, id. Rosc. Am. 16, 45.
      9. 9. Dies bonus or bona.
          1. (α) A day of good omen, a fortunate day (= dies laetus, faustus): tum tu igitur die bono, Aphrodisiis, addice, etc., Plaut. Poen. 2, 49: nunc dicenda bonā sunt bona verba die, Ov. F. 1, 72.
          2. (β) A beautiful, serene day, Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 3.
      10. 10. Bonus mos.
          1. (α) Boni mores, referring to individuals, good, decent, moral habits: nihil est amabilius quam morum similitudo bonorum, Cic. Off. 1, 17, 56: nam hic nimium morbus mores invasit bonos, Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 6: domi militiaeque boni mores colebantur, Sall. C. 9, 1: propter ejus suavissimos et optimos mores, Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13: cum per tot annos matronae optimis moribus vixerint, Liv. 34, 6, 9: mores meliores, Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 18.
          2. (β) Bonus mos or boni mores, in the abstract, morality, the laws, rules of morality: ei vos morigerari mos bonu’st, it is a rule of morality that you should, etc., Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 4: ex optimo more et sanctissimā disciplinā, Cic. Phil. 2, 28, 69: neglegentia boni moris, Sen. Ep. 97, 1.
            Jurid. t. t.: conventio, mandatum contra bonos mores, in conflict with morality, Quint. 3, 1, 57; Dig. 16, 3, 1, § 7; Gai. Inst. 3, 157 et saep.
      11. 11. Adverbial phrases.
        1. a. Bono animo esse, or bonum animum habere.
          1. (α) To be of good cheer or courage: bono animo es! Liberabit ille te homo, Plaut. Merc 3, 1, 33; so id. Aul. 4, 10, 61; id. Mil. 4, 8, 32; id. Rud. 3, 3, 17; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 4; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 18; id. Ad. 2, 4, 20; 3, 5, 1; 4, 2, 4; 4, 5, 62; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 72: animo bono es, Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 103; id. Am. 2, 2, 48; 5, 2, 1: bono animo es, inquit Scrofa, et fiscinam expedi, Varr. R. R. 1, 26: bono animo sint et tui et mei familiares, Cic. Fam. 6, 18, 1; 6, 10, 29: bono animo esse jubere eam consul, Liv. 39, 13, 7: habe modo bonum animum, Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 58; so id. Am. 1, 3, 47; id. Truc. 2, 6, 44; id. Aul. 2, 2, 15: habe animum bonum, id. Cas. 2, 6, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 1; 4, 2, 31: bonum animum habe, Liv. 45, 8, 5: clamor ortus ut bonum animum haberet, id. 8, 32, 1; so Sen. Ep. 87, 38.
          2. (β) Bono animo esse, or facere aliquid, to be of a good or friendly disposition, or to do with good, honest intentions: audire jubet vos imperator histricus, bonoque ut animo sedeant in subselliis qui, etc., Plaut. Poen. prol. 5: sunt enim (consules) optimo animo, summo consilio, of the best disposition, Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 2: bono te animo tum populus Romanusdicere existimavit ea quae sentiebatis, sed, etc., id. Imp. Pomp. 19, 56: quod nondum bono animo in populum Romanum viderentur, Caes. B. G. 1, 6; Quint. 7, 4, 15.
          3. (γ) Bonus animus, good temper, patience: bonus animus in malā re dimidium mali est, Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 37: vos etiam hoc animo meliore feratis, Ov. M. 9, 433.
        2. b. Bono modo.
          1. (α) = placide, with composure, moderation: si quis quid deliquerit, pro noxā bono modo vindicet, Cato, R. R. 5: haec tibi tam sunt defendenda quam moenia, mihi autem bono modo, tantum quantum videbitur, Cic. Ac. 2, 44, 137.
          2. (β) In a decent manner: neu quisquam prohibeto filium quin ametquod bono fiat modo, Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 62.
        3. c. Jure optimo or optimo jure, with good, perfect right: te ipse jure optumo incuses licet, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 23; id. Rud. 2, 6, 53: ut jure optimo me deserere posses, Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 6; Sen. Ot. Sap. 2 (29), 2.
          With pass. or intr. verb, deservedly: ne jure optimo irrideamur, Cic. Off. 1, 31, 111; cf. id. ib. 1, 42, 151; id. Marcell. 1, 4; similarly, optimo judicio, Val. Max. 2, 9, 2.
  2. II. As subst.
    1. A. bŏnus, boni, m.; of persons.
      1. 1. In sing. or plur. orig. = bonus vir, boni viri; v. I. A. 1. a. β, supra, a morally good man.
          1. (α) Plur.: bonis quod bene fit haud perit, Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 2; id. Capt. 2, 2, 108; id. Trin. 2, 1, 55; id. Pers. 4, 5, 2: melius apud bonos quam apud fortunatos beneficium collocari puto, Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71: verum esse ut bonos boni diligant, quamobrembonis inter bonos quasi necessariam (esse) benevolentiam, id. Lael. 14, 50: diverso itinere malos a bonis loca tætrahabere, Sall. C. 52, 13; 7, 2; 52, 22: oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore, Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 52: tam bonis quam malis conduntur urbes, Sen. Ben. 4, 28, 4; so id. Vit. Beat. 15, 6; Quint. 9, 2, 76.
            Rarely bŏnae, ārum, f., good women: quia omnes bonos bonasque adcurare addecet, etc., Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 41.
          2. (β) Sing.: malus bonum malum esse volt ut sit sui similis, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 8: nec enim cuique bono mali quidquam evenire potest, Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 99; cf.: qui meliorem audax vocet in jus, Hor. S. 2, 5, 29.
      2. 2. Bonus, a man of honor.
          1. (α) A brave man: pro quā (patriā) quis bonus dubitet mortem oppetere si ei sit profuturus? Cic. Off. 1, 17, 57: libertatem quam nemo bonus nisi cum animā simul amittat, Sall. C. 33, 5: fortes creantur fortibus et bonis, Hor. C. 4, 4, 29 (opp. ignavi): famā impari boni atque ignavi erant, Sall. J. 57, 6; 53, 8; id. C. 11, 2.
          2. (β) A gentleman: quis enim umquam, qui paululum modo bonorum consuetudinem nosset, litteras ad se ab amico missas … in medium protulit? Cic. Phil. 2, 4, 7.
      3. 3. Boni, the better (i. e. higher) classes of society.
          1. (α) In gen. (of political sentiments, = optimates, opp. populares, seditiosi, perditi cives, etc.; so usu. in Cic.): meam causam omnes boni proprie enixeque susceperant, Cic. Sest. 16, 38: audaces homines et perditi nutu impellunturboni, nescio quomodo, tardiores sunt, etc., id. ib. 47, 100: ego Kal. Jan. senatum et bonos omnes legis agrariaemetu liberavi, id. Pis. 2, 4: etenim omnes boni, quantum in ipsis fuit, Caesarem occiderunt, id. Phil. 2, 13, 29; id. Fam. 5, 2, 8; 5, 21, 2; id. Sest. 2, 5; 16, 36; 48, 103; id. Planc. 35, 86; id. Mil. 2, 5; id. Off. 2. 12, 43: maledictis increpat omnes bonos, Sall. C. 21, 4; 19, 2; 33, 3; Hirt. B. G. 8, 22; so, optimi, Cic. Leg. 3, 17, 37; and, ironically, boni identified with the rich: bonorum, id est lautorum et locupletum, id. Att. 8, 1, 3.
          2. (β) Without reference to political views; opp. vulgus (rare): nihil ego istos moror fatuos mores quibus boni dedecorant se, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 22: semper in civitate quibus opes nullae sunt bonis invident, Sall. C. 37, 3: elatus est sine ullā pompā funeris, comitantibus omnibus bonis, maximā vulgi frequentiā, Nep. Att. 22, 2.
            So, mĕlĭōres, um, m., one’s betters: ut quaestui habeant male loqui melioribus, Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 13: da locum melioribus, Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 37.
      4. 4. Boni, bone, in addresses, as an expression of courtesy, Hor. S. 2, 2, 1; 2, 6, 51; 2, 6, 95; id. Ep. 2, 2, 37; ironice, id. S. 2, 3, 31.
      5. 5. Optimus quisque = quivis bonus, omnes boni.
          1. (α) Referring to morality: esse aliquid naturā pulcrum quod optimus quisque sequeretur, every good man, Cic. Sen. 13, 43: qui ita se gerebant ut sua consilia optimo cuique probarent, optimates habebantur, id. Sest. 45, 96; id. Off. 1, 43, 154; id. Fin. 1, 7, 24; id. Sest. 54, 115; and = even the best: quare deus optimum quemque malā valetudine adficit? Sen. Prov. 4, 8.
          2. (β) Of the educated classes: adhibenda est quaedam reverentia adversus homines, et optimi cujusque et reliquorum, Cic. Off. 1, 28, 99; cf. id. ib. 1, 25, 85: Catilina plerisque consularibus, praeterea optumo cuique, litteras mittit, Sall. C. 34, 2: optimo cuique infesta libertas, Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 2 (32 fin.).
          3. (γ) Honorable, brave: optumus quisque cadere et sauciari, ceteris metus augeri, Sall. J. 92, 8.
          4. (δ) In gen., excellent: optimus quisque facere quam diceremalebat, Sall. C. 8, 5.
            (ε) Distributively: ita imperium semper ad optumum quemque a minus bono transfertur, to the best man in each instance, Sall. C. 2, 6.
            (ζ) Referring to another superlative ( = quo quisque melior eo magis, etc.): hic aditus laudis qui semper optimo cuique maxime patuit, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 1; so id. Lael. 4, 14; id. Inv. 2, 11, 36; Sen. Vit. Beat. 18, 1.
            (η) Attributively, with a noun: optimam quamque causam, Cic. Sest. 43, 93: optima quaeque dies, Verg. G. 3, 66.

D, d (n. indecl., sometimes f. sc. littera), the flat dental mute, corresponding in character and sound to the English

  1. I. d and the Greek Δ, was the fourth letter of the Latin alphabet, and was called de: Ter. Maur. p. 2385 P., Auson. Idyll. 12, de Litt. Monos. 14. But at the end of a syllable, or after another consonant, its sound was sharpened, so that the grammarians often discuss the question whether d or t should be written, especially in conjunctions and prepositions. Illa quoque servata est a multis differentia, ut ad cum esset praepositio, d litteram, cum autem conjunctio, t acciperet (Quint. 1, 7, 5; cf. id. 1, 4, 16). Hence we may infer that some disputed this distinction, and that the sounds of ad and at must at least have been very similar (cf. also Terent. Scaur. p. 2250, Vel. Long. p. 2230 sq., Cassiod. p. 2287, 2291). Thus also aput, it, quit, quot, aliut, set, haut are found for apud, id, quid, quod, aliud, sed, haud. It would appear from the remarks of these authors that the last two words in particular, having a proclitic character, while they distinctly retained the d sound before an initial vowel in the following word, were pronounced before a consonant almost as set, haut (Mar. Vict. p. 2462 P., Vel. Long. l. l. v. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 191 sq.). The use of t for d in the middle of a word, as Alexenter for Alexander, atnato for adnato, is very rare (cf. Wordsworth, Fragm. p. 486 sq.). On the other hand, the use of d for t, which sometimes appears in MSS. and inscrr., as ed, capud, essed, inquid (all of which occur in the Cod. palimps. of Cic. Rep.), adque, quodannis, sicud, etc., fecid, reliquid, etc. (all in inscriptions after the Augustan period), is to be ascribed to a later phonetic softening (cf. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 191 sq.).
  2. II. As an initial, the letter d, in pure Latin words, suffers only a vowel after it; the single consonantal compound dr being found only in borrowed words, such as drama, Drusus, Druidae, etc., and in the two onomatopees drenso and drindio. Accordingly, the d of the initial dv, from du, was rejected, and the remaining v either retained unaltered (as in viginti for duiginti; cf. triginta) or changed into b (as in bellum, bis, bonus, for duellum, duis, duonus; v. those words and the letter B). So too in and after the 4th century A.D., di before vowels was pronounced like j (cf. Jovis for Djovis, and Janus for Dianus); and hence, as the Greek δι (di) passed into dz, i. e. ζ (as in ζ α for δ ια, and zeta for diaeta), we sometimes find the same name written in two or three ways, as Diabolenus, Jabolenus, Zabolenus; Jadera, Diadora, Zara. In many Greek words, however, which originally began with a y sound, d was prefixed by an instinctive effort to avoid a disagreeable utterance, just as in English the initial j has regularly assumed the sound of dj: thus Gr. ζυγόν, i. e. διυγον = L. jugum; and in such cases the d sound has been prefixed in Greek, not lost in Latin and other languages (v. Curt. Griech. Etym. p. 608 sq.).β. As a medial, d before most consonants undergoes assimilation; v. ad, no. II.; assum, init., and cf. iccirco, quippiam, quicquam, for idcirco, quidpiam, quidquam; and in contractions like cette from cedite, pelluviae from pediluviae, sella from sedela. In contractions, however, the d is sometimes dropped and a compensation effected by lengthening the preceding vowel, as scāla for scand-la. D before endings which begin with s was suppressed, as pes from ped-s, lapis from lapid-s, frons from frond-s, rasi from radsi, risi from rid-si, lusi from lud-si, clausi from claud-si; but in the second and third roots of cedo, and in the third roots of some other verbs, d is assimilated, as cessi, cessum, fossum, etc. D is also omitted before s in composition when another consonant follows the s, as ascendo, aspicio, asto, astringo, and so also before the nasal gn in agnatus, agnitus, and agnosco, from gnatus, etc.: but in other combinations it is assimilated, as assentio, acclamo, accresco; affligo, affrico; agglomero, aggrego; applico, approbo, etc. In tentum, from tendo, d is dropped to avoid the combination ndt or ntt, since euphony forbids a consonant to be doubled after another.γ. Final d stood only in ad, apud, sed, and in the neuter pronouns quid, quod, illud, istud, and aliud, anciently alid. Otherwise, the ending d was considered barbarous, Prisc. p. 686 P.
  3. III. The letter d represents regularly an original Indo-Germanic d, in Greek δ, but which in German becomes z [??], in Gothic t, and in Anglo-Saxon t: cf. Gr. ἥδομαι, Sanscr. svad, Germ. süss, Angl.-Sax. svēte (sweet), with Lat. suadeo; domare with Gr. δαμάω, Germ. zähmen, Eng. tame; domus with δέμω, timber, O. H. Germ. zimber; duo with δύω, zwei, two. But it is also interchanged with other sounds, and thus sometimes represents
      1. 1. An original t: mendax from mentior; quadraginta, quadra, etc., from quatuor.
      2. 2. An original r: ar and ad; apur or apor and apud; meridies and medidies, audio and auris; cf. arbiter, from ad-beto; arcesso for ad-cesso.
      3. 3. An original l: adeps, Gr. ἄλειφα; dacrima and lacrima, dingua and lingua; cf. on the contrary, olere for odere, consilium and considere, Ulixes from Ὀδυσσεύς (v. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 223).
      4. 4. An original s: Claudius, from the Sabine Clausus, medius and μίσος; and, on the contrary, rosa and ῤόδον.
      5. 5. A Greek θ: fides, πίστις; gaudere, γηθέω; vad-i-monium (from va-d-s, vadis), ἄεθλον.
  4. IV. In the oldest period of the language d was the ending of the ablat. sing. and of the adverbs which were originally ablatives (cf. Ritschl, Neue Plaut. Excur. I.; Brix ad Plaut. Trin. Prol. 10): puCNANDO, MARID, DICTATORED, IN ALTOD MARID, NAVALED PRAEDAD on the Col. Rostr.; DE SENATVOS SENTENTIAD (thrice) IN OQVOLTOD, IN POPLICOD, IN PREIVATOD, IN COVENTIONID, and the adverbs SVPRAD SCRIPTVM EST (thrice), EXSTRAD QVAM SEI, and even EXSTRAD VRBEM, in S. C. de Bacch. So intra-d, ultra-d, citra-d, contra-d, infra-d, supra-d; contro-d, intro-d, etc.; and probably interea-d, postea-d. Here too belongs, no doubt, the adverb FACILVMED, found in the last-mentioned inscription. But this use of the d became antiquated during the 3d century B.C., and is not found at all in any inscription after 186 B. C. Plautus seems to have used or omitted it at will (Ritschl, Neue Plaut. Excurs. p. 18: Corss. Ausspr. 1, 197; 2, 1008).
      1. 2. D final was also anciently found
        1. a. In the accus. sing. of the personal pronouns med, ted, sed: INTER SED CONIOVRASE and INTER SED DEDISE, for inter se conjuravisse and inter se dedisse, in the S. C. de Bacch. This usage was retained, at least as a license of verse, when the next word began with a vowel, even in the time of Plautus. But in the classic period this d no longer appears.
        2. b. In the imperative mood; as estod, Fest. p. 230. The Oscan language retained this ending (v. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 206).
        3. c. In the preposition se-, originally identical with the conjunction sed (it is retained in the compound seditio); also in red-, prod-, antid-, postid-, etc. (redire, prodire, etc.); and in these words, too, it is a remnant of the ancient characteristic of the ablative (v. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 200 sq.; Roby, Lat. Gr. 1, 49).
  5. V. As an abbreviation, D usually stands for the praenomen Decimus; also for Deus, Divus, Dominus, Decurio, etc.; over epitaphs, D. M. = Diis Manibus; over temple inscriptions, D. O. M. = Deo Optimo Maxumo; in the titles of the later emperors, D. N. = Dominus Noster, and DD. NN. = Domini Nostri. Before dates of letters, D signified dabam, and also dies; hence, a. d. = ante diem; in offerings to the gods, D. D. = dono or donum dedit; D. D. D. = dat, dicat, dedicat, etc. Cf. Orell. Inscr. II. p. 457 sq.
    Note: The Romans denoted the number 500 by D; but the character was then regarded, not as a letter, but as half of the original Tuscan numeral [??] (or CIↃ) for 1000.

Dăae, v. Dahae.

Dabanegoris Rĕgio, a part of Arabia, Plin. 6, 28, 32, § 150.

Dabar, ăris, m., a Numidian, a relative of Masinissa and an intimate friend of Bocchus, Sall. J. 108 and 109.

†† dabla, ae, f. [Arab. word], a kind of Arabian palm, which bears a delicious fruit, Plin. 13, 4, 7, § 34.

Dāci, ōrum, m., Δακοί,

  1. I. the Dacians, a famous warlike people, akin to the Thracians. They occupied what is now Upper Hungary, Transylvania, Moldavia, Wallachia, Bessarabia. Subdued by Trajan, they received Roman civilization, and thence retain in part the name Rumanians, Plin. 4, 12, 25; Caes. B. G. 6, 25; Tac. G. 1; id. H. 1, 79; 3, 46; Suet. Caes. 44; id. Aug. 8; Flor. 4, 12, 3; Hor. S. 2, 6, 53 et saep. In sing., Dācus, i, m., a Dacian (usually collect.), Verg. G. 2, 497; cf. Voss. ad loc.; Hor. Od. 1, 35, 9; 2, 20, 18; Tac. H. 1, 2 al.
  2. II. Hence,
    1. A. Dācĭa, ae, f., Δακία, the province Dacia, Tac. Agr. 41; Flor. 3, 4, 6; Oros. 1, 2; Jornand. Regn. Succ. p. 59, 52 al.: DACIA. APVLENSIS. (of the colony Apulum or Alba Julia, near Carlsburg), Inscr. Orell. no. 3888: (DECIO) RESTITVTORI DACIARVM, ib. no. 991. A part of it bordering on the Danube was Dacia Aureliani, Eutrop. 9, 15; and Dacia Ripensis, Jornand. Regn. Succ. p. 59, 51.
    2. * B. Dācus, a, um, adj., Dacian: proelia, Stat. S. 4, 2, 66 (written Dacius, Albin. Cons. ad Liv. 387).
    3. C. Dācĭcus, a, um, adj., Dacian: arma, Claud. VI. Cons. Honor. 335: rura, Sid. Carm. 1, 272. As subst., Da-cicus, i, m. (sc. nummus), a piece of gold coined under Domitian, the conqueror of the Dacians (Suet. Dom. 6), Juv. 6, 205.
    4. D. Dāciscus, a, um, adj., Dacian, imperium, Lact. de Mort. Pers. 27, 8.

dăcrĭma, v. lacrima.

Dactyli, ōrum, m., v. dactylus, no. VII.

dactylĭcus, a, um, adj., = δακτυλικός, dactylic: numerus, Cic. Or. 57: pes, Prud. στεφ. 3, 209: metra, Serv. Centim. p. 1820 P.; versus, Diom. p. 494 P. al.

dactylĭŏthēca, ae, f., = δακτυλιοθήκη.

      1. 1. A casket to keep rings in, Mart. 11, 59, 4; 14, 123, title.
      2. 2. Transf., a collection of seal-rings and jewels, Plin. 37, 1, 5, § 11; Caesaris, Murat. Inscr. 907, 3.

dactylis, ĭdis, f., a kind of grape; cf. the following, no. II.

dactylus, i, m., = δάκτυλος (a finger, hence meton.).

  1. I. A sort of muscle: "ab humanorum unguium similitudine appellati," Plin. 9, 61, 87, § 184.
  2. II. A kind of grape, Col. 3, 2, 1; called also dacty-lis, Plin. 14, 3, 4, § 40.
  3. III. A sort of grass, Plin. 24, 19, 119, § 182.
  4. IV. A precious stone, Plin. 37, 10, 61, § 170.
  5. V. The date, Pall. Oct. 12, 1; Apic. 1, 1 al.
  6. VI. In metre, a dactyl, –⏑⏑ (in allusion to the three joints of the finger), Cic. Or. 64, 217; id. de Or. 3, 47, 182; Quint. 9, 4, 81 et saep.
  7. VII. Dactyli Idaei, Δάκτυλοι Ἰδαῖοι, a mythic body of men originally placed on Mt. Ida, in Phrygia, afterwards in the island of Crete; priests of Cybele, and as such regarded as identical with the Corybantes, and with the Samothracian Cabiri, Diom. p. 474 P.; Plin. 7, 56, 57, § 197 (in pure Lat., Idaei Digiti, Cic. N. D. 3, 16, 42).

Dācus, a, um, v. Daci, no. II. B.

Dădastăna, ae, f., a city of Bithynia, near the borders of Galatia; here the Emperor Jovian died, Amm. Marc. 25, 10; 26, 23.
Plur. form, Dadastă-nae, arum, Jornand. Regn. Succ. p. 53.

dādūchus, i, m., Gr. δᾳδοῦχος, the torch-bearer.
Plur.:
dādūchi, the priests of Ceres (Demeter) at Eleusis, who guided the initiated with torches to the temple on the fifth day of the Mysteries, Front. Ep. ad Verr. 1; Fabrett. Inscr. 676, no. 29.

Daedăla, ōrum, n., Δαίδαλα.

  1. I. A fortified place in Caria, Plin. 5, 27, 29, § 103; Liv. 37, 22, 3.
    Hence, insulae Daedaleae, two small islands off the coast of Caria, Plin. 5, 31, 35, § 131.
  2. II. The name of a region in India, Curt. 8, 10, 19; cf. Daedali montes, Justin. 12, 7.

daedăle, adv., artistically, skilfully, v. 1, daedalus, fin.

Daedălĭōn, ōnis, m., Δαιδαλίων, a king of Trachis, son of Lucifer, and brother of Ceyx, who was changed into a hawk, Ov. M. 11, 295 sq.

    1. 1.daedălus, a, um, adj., = δαίδαλος, artificial, skilful (poet. and in postclass. prose).
  1. I. Act.: Minerva, Enn. ap. Paul. ex Fest. p. 68, 6 Müll. (Fr. Inc. Lib. xxi. Vahl.): daedalam a varietate rerum artificiorumque dictam esse apud Lucretium terram, apud Ennium Minervam, apud Vergilium Circen, facile est intellegere, cum Graece δαιδάλλειν significet variare, Paul. ex Fest. p. 68 Müll.: Circe ("ingeniosa," Serv.), Verg. A. 7, 282.
    1. B. With gen.: verborum daedala lingua, the fashioner of words, Lucr. 4, 549; cf.: natura daedala rerum, id. 5, 234.
  2. II. Pass., artificially contrived, variously adorned, ornamented, etc., δαιδάλεος: tecta (apium), skilfully constructed: signa, Lucr. 5, 145: tellus, variegated, id. 1, 7; 228; Verg. G. 4, 179; cf.: carmina chordis, artfully varied on strings, id. 2, 505.
    * Adv.: daedăle, skilfully, Jul. Val. Res gest. A. M. 3, 86.

2. Daedălus, i, m. (acc. Gr. Daedalon, Ov. M. 8, 261; Mart. 4, 49), Δαίδαλος.

  1. I. The mythical Athenian architect of the times of Theseus and Minos, father of Icarus, and builder of the Cretan labyrinth, Ov. M. 8, 159; 183; id. Tr. 3, 4, 21; Verg. A. 6, 14 Serv.; Mel. 2, 7, 12: Plin. 7, 56, 57; Hyg. Fab. 39; Cic. Brut. 18, 71; Hor. Od. 1, 3, 34; Mart. 4, 49, 5; Sil. 12, 89 sq., et saep.
    1. B. Hence,
      1. 1. Daedălē̆us, a, um, adj., Daedalian, relating to Daedalus:
          1. (α) Daedălēo Icaro, Hor. Od. 2, 20, 13: Ope Daedălēa, id. ib. 4, 2, 2.
          2. (β) Daedalĕum iter (i. e. through the labyrinth), Prop. 2, 14, 8 (3, 6, 8 M.).
      2. * 2. Daedălĭcus, a, um, adj., skilful: manus, Venant. 10, 11, 17.
  2. II. A later sculptor of Sicyon, son and pupil of Patrocles: et ipse inter fictores laudatus, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 76.
      1. 1.daemon, ŏnis, m., = δαίμων, a spirit, genius, lar (post-class.).
  1. I. In gen.: App. de Deo Socr. p. 49, 5: bonus = ἀγαθοδαίμων, in astrology, the last but one of the twelve celestial signs, Firm. Math. 2, 19: melior, Jul. Val. Res gest. A. M. 1, 27.
  2. II. In eccl. writers: κατ’ ἐξοχήν, an evil spirit, demon, Lact. 2, 14; Vulg. Levit. 17, 7; id. Jacob. 2, 19; Tert. Apol. 22 init., et saep.

2. Daemon, ŏnis, m., the name of a Greek sculptor, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 87.

Daemŏnes, is, m., the name of an old man, a character in the Rudens, Plaut. Rud. Prol. 33; ib. 4, 7, 20.

daemŏnĭăcus, a, um, adj., = δαιμονιακός, pertaining to an evil spirit, demoniac, devilish (eccl. Lat.).

  1. I. Adj.: ratio, Tert. Anim. 46: potentia, Lact. 4, 15.
  2. II. Subst.: daemoniacus, i, m., a demoniac, one possessed by an evil spirit, Firm. Math. 3, 6; Sulpic. Sever. Vit. S. Mart. 18.

* daemŏnĭcŏla, ae, m. [daemon-colo], a worshipper of devils, a heathen, Aug. Conf. 8, 2.

daemŏnĭcus, a, um, adj., = δαιμονικός, belonging to an evil spirit, demoniac, devilish (eccl. Lat.): impetus, Tert. Res. Carn. 58: aras coli, Prud. στεφ. 36: fraudes, Lact. 4, 13, 16.

daemŏnĭum, ii, n., = δαιμόνιον.

  1. I. A lesser divinity, a little spirit, Manil. 2, 938; Tert. Apol. 32.
  2. II. An evil spirit, demon, App. Mag. p. 315, 10; Vulg. Deut. p. 32, 17; Psa. 95, 5 et saep.; Tert. Apol. 21 al.

Daesĭtĭātae, ārum, m., a people in the south of Pannonia Superior, Pl. 3, 22, 26, § 143; Vell. Pat. 2, 115.

dagnades, um, f., a kind of birds in Egypt, Paul. ex Fest. p. 68, 15 Müll.

Dăhae (less correctly written Daae, v. Bramb. s. v.), ārum, m., Δάαι, a Scythian tribe beyond the Caspian Sea, Mel. 1, 2, 5; Plin. 6, 17, 19, § 50; Liv. 35, 48; id. 37, 38; Tac. A. 2, 3; 11, 8; 10; Curt. 8, 3, 1; 16 al.; Verg. A. 8, 728; Luc. 2, 296; 7, 429; Sil. 13, 764; cf. Δάοι, Herod. 1, 125; Strab. p. 304; Ritter, Erdk. 7, 627 sq.; 668 sq.
In sing.: Dăhă, Prud. contr. Symm. 2, 807.

Dăhippus, i, m., Δάϊππος, a sculptor, son and pupil of Lysippus, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 87.

Daïphron, ŏnis, m., Δαίφρων, a Grecian sculptor, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 87.

Dalion, ōnis, m.

  1. I. A physician, Plin. 20, 17, 73, § 191.
  2. II. An historian, id. 6, 30, 35, § 194.

dalivus, a word of unknown signif.; acc. to some, = supinus; acc. to others, = stultus or insanus, Paul. ex Fest. 68, 1 Müll.

Dalmătae or Delmătae (so very often in the best MSS. and inscrr., and on coins; cf. Vel. Long. p. 2233; Cassiod. p. 2287, and Orell. ad Hor. Od. 2, 1, 16), ārum, m., Δαλμάται,

  1. I. the Dalmatians, on the eastern coast of the Adriatic, Cic. Fam. 5, 11, 3; Tac. H. 3, 12; 50; Suet. Tib. 9; Flor. 4, 12, 3; 10; Inscr. Orell. no. 1833; 3037 al.
    Adj.: montes Dalmatae, Stat. S. 4, 7, 14.
  2. II. Hence,
    1. A. Dalmătĭa (Delm-), ae, f., Δαλματία, the country on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, Dalmatia, Plin. 3, 22, 26, § 141; Vatin. ap. Cic. Fam. 5, 10, 3; Tac. A. 2, 53; id. H. 1, 76 al.; Suet. Aug. 21; Flor. 3, 4, 1; Vell. Pat. 2, 39, 90; Ov. Pont. 2, 2, 78 et saep.
    2. B. Dalmătĭcus (Delm-), a, um, adj., Dalmatian: frigus, Vatin. ap. Cic. Fam. 5, 10: Alpes, Plin. 11, 42, 97, § 240: mare, Tac. A. 3, 9: miles, id. H., 2, 86; bellum, id. A. 6, 37: triumphus, Hor. Od. 2, 1, 16; cf. Suet. Aug. 22: metallo, i. e. Dalmatian gold, Stat. S. 1, 2, 153; cf. Flor. 4, 12, 12.
      Hence,
          1. (α) Dalmătĭca, ae (sc. vestis), a long undergarment of Dalmatian wool, worn by priests during the mass, Edict. Diocl. 16, 4; 17, 1; cf. Isid. Orig. 19, 22, 9.
          2. (β) Dalmătĭcātus (Delm-), a, um, adj., clothed in such a garment, Lampr. Commod. 8; id. Elag. 26.
      1. 2. Subst.: Dal-mătĭcus (Delm-), i, m., surname of L. Metellus (cons. A. U. 635), on account of his victories over the Dalmatians, Ascon. Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 59, § 154.
    3. * C. Dalmătensis (Delm-), e, adj., Dalmatian: Gall. ap. Treb. Claud. 17.

1. dāma, ae, v. damma.

2. Dāma, ae, m., name of a slave, Hor. S. 1, 6, 38; 2, 5, 18; 101; 2, 7, 54.

dămălĭo, ōnis, m. [δάμαλος], a calf, Lampr. Alex. Sever. 22, 8.

Dămălis is (is or ĭdis, acc. to Probus, p. 124 Lindem.), f., the name of a woman, Hor. Od. 1, 36, 13 sq.

Dămascus (-os, Luc 3, 215; cf. Prob. II. p. 1462 fin. P., p. 121 Lindem.), i, f., Δαμασκός, Heb. Dammesek or Darmesek, the very ancient capital of Coelesyria, on the Chrysorrhoas, celebrated for its terebinths, and, since the time of the Emperor Diocletian, for its fabrics in steel, now Dameshk, Curt. 3, 12 sq.; Plin. 5, 18, 16, § 74; 13, 6, 12, § 54; Flor. 3, 5, 29; Stat. S. 1, 6, 14; Vulg. Gen. 14, 12.
Hence,

  1. I. Damascus, a, um, adj., of Damascus (eccl. Lat.), Vulg. Gen. 15, 2.
  2. II. Dăma-scēnus, a, um, adj., of Damascus, Damascene: pruna, Plin. 15, 13, 12, § 43; Pall. Nov. 7, 16; Mart. 13, 29; cf. absol., id. 5, 18, 3 (Eng. damson); and pruna Damasci, Col. 10, 404.
    1. B. Subst.:
      1. 1. DAMASCENVS, i, m.,
          1. (α) a surname of Juppiter, Inscr. Grut. 20, 2.
          2. (β) Plur.: the people of Damascus, Vulg. 2 Cor. 11, 32.
      2. 2. Dămascēna, ae, f. (sc. regio), the region about Damascus, Plin. 5, 12, 13, § 66; in the Greek form Damascene, Mel. 1, 11, 1.

Dămăsichthōn, ŏnis, m., Δαμασίχθων, son of Amphion and Niobe, slain by Apollo, Ov. M. 6, 254 al.

Dămăsippus, i, m., Δαμάσιππος (tamer of horses),

  1. I. Prætor 672 A. U. C., a follower of Marius, who acted with great cruelty towards the adherents of Sylla; afterwards put to death by order of Sylla, Sall. C. 51, 32; Vell. 2, 26, 2; Cic. Fam. 9, 21, 3.
  2. II. A surname in the gens Licinia, Caes. B. C. 2, 44; Cic. Fam. 7, 23, 2 sq.; id. Att. 12, 29 fin.; 33, 1 al.
  3. III. Name of a bankrupt merchant and ridiculous Stoic philosopher, Hor. S. 2, 3, 16 sqq.
  4. IV. Name of an actor, Juv. 8, 147.

damasōnĭon, ii, n, = δαμασώνιον, a plant = alisma, Plin. 25, 10, 77, § 124.

dāmium, ii, n.: sacrificium, quod fie bat in operto in honorem Bonae Deae. Dea quoque ipsa DAMIA et sacerdos ejus DAMIATRIX appellabatur, Paul. ex Fest. p. 68, 8 Müll [δᾶμος = δῆμος]; cf. "damium, θυσίαι ὑπαίθριοι γινόμεναι," Gloss. Lab.

dāmĭurgus, v. demiurgus.

damma (dama), ae, f. (m., Verg. Ec. 8, 28; Georg. 3, 539; A. 8, 641; Stat. Ach. 2, 408; cf. Quint. 9, 3, 6) [R. dam-, v. domo], a general name for beasts of the deer kind;

  1. I. a fallow deer, buck, doe, antelope, chamois, Plin. 8, 53, 79, § 214; 11, 37, 45, § 124; Verg. G. 1, 308; 3, 410; Hor. Od. 1, 2, 12; Ov. M. 1, 442; 10, 539; 13, 832; id. F. 3, 646; Juv. 11, 121; Sen. Hippol. 62; Sid. Ep. 8, 6.
  2. II. Transf., venison: nil damma sapit, Juv. 11, 121; Ov. M. 13, 832.

dammŭla, ae, f. dim., v. damula.

damnābĭlis, e, adj. [damno], worthy of condemnation, damnable (late Lat. for damnandus, or dignus qui damnetur): invidia, Treb. XXX. Tyrann. 17: res (with turpes), Salv. 6: ad mea ipsa verba, i. e. by my own rule, Sid. Ep. 6, 1 fin. Comp.: facinus, Salv. 4.
Adv.: damnābĭlĭter, culpably, Aug. Ep. 23.

damnas, indecl. [do, v. damnum], bound to make a gift or contribution, hence an old legal t. t., condemned, sentenced to do any thing (esp. to pay a fine).

        1. (α) With sing.: TANTVM AES DARE DOMINO DAMNAS ESTO, Lex Aquilia in Dig. 9, 2, 2; so, damnas esto dare illi omnia, Auct. ap. Quint. 7, 9, 12; id. ib. 9; Inscr. Orell. no. 4425 and 4428; Tab. Heracl. ap. Harbold. Mon. Leg. p. 104: S. C. ap. Front. Aquaed. 129 al.
        2. (β) With plur.: decem dare damnas sunto, Dig. 30, 122; ib. 32, 34, 1.

damnāticĭus (or -tius), a, um, adj. [damno], condemned, sentenced: "Κατάκριτον damnaticium," Gloss. Gr. Lat. (late Lat.): etsi nihil de damnaticiis participarent, Tert. Praescr. Haeret. 34 fin.

damnātĭo, ōnis, f. [damno], condemnation (good prose).

  1. I. Prop.
    1. A. In gen.: (video) omnes damnatos, omnes ignominia affectos, omnes damnatione ignominiaque dignos illuc facere, etc., Cic. Att. 7, 3, 5; id. Verr. 2, 2, 41: quid est illa damnatione judicatum, nisi, etc.? id. Clu. 20: si damnatio ingruit, Tac. A, 4, 35: certi damnationis, Suet. Tib. 61 al.
      In eccl. Lat. esp. of the displeasure of God: quorum damnatio justa est, Vulg. Rom. 3, 8; 8, 1.
      In plur.: reorum acerbissimae damnationes (opp. libidinosissimae liberationes), Cic. Pis. 36; Tac. A. 3, 31 fin.
      With gen. of the offence: ambitus, Cic. Clu. 36, 98; of the punishment: tantae pecuniae, id. Verr. 2, 17, 42.
      With ad and accus. of the punishment: ad furcam, Dig. 48, 19, 28: hominis ad carnificinam, dei ad poenam sempiternam, Lact. 5, 11, 8; animarum ad aeterna supplicia, id. 2, 12, 9.
    2. B. Esp. with reference to the meaning of damnas (v. h. v.): an heir’s obligation to pay, Paul. Sent. 3, 6.
  2. II. Transf., of inanimate things: apiastrum in confessa damnatione est venenatum, Plin. 20, 11, 45, § 116.

damnātor, ōris, m. [damno], one who condemns (late Lat.), Tert. ad Nat. 1, 3; id. adv. Marc. 1, 7: damnator Christi frater iniquus, Sedul. Hymn. 1, 10 al.

damnātōrĭus, a, um, adj. [damnator], damnatory, condemnatory (rare, but good prose): judicium, * Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 22: d. et absolutoria tabella, * Suet. Aug. 33: ferrum, Amm. 28, 1 fin.

damnātus, a, um, v. damno, P. a.

damnaustra and ‡ dannaustra, words of a charm to cure a dislocated joint, Cato R. R. 160.

damnĭfĭco, āre, v. a., to injure: (eccl. Lat.) aliquem pecuniis, to fine, Cassiod. Hist. Eccl. 7, 29.

damnĭfĭcus, a, um, adj. [damnumfacio], injurious, hurtful, pernicious: bestia, Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 62: damnificum est aliquid facere, Pall. 3, 9 fin.

* damnĭgĕrŭlus, a, um, adj. [damnum-gero], injurious, pernicious, Plaut. Truc. 2, 7, 1.

damno (in vulg. lang. and late Lat. sometimes dampno), āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. [damnum].

  1. I. Gen., to occasion loss or damage to, to harm, damage = damno afficere: pauperibus parcere, divites damnare atque domare, Plaut. Trin. 4, 1, 10.
  2. II. Esp. [cf. damnum, II.] a judicial t. t., to condemn, doom, sentence one to any punishment = condemno, v. Cic. Or. 49, 166 (opp. to absolvere, liberare, dimittere; cf. also condemno, culpo, improbo; common and classical).
    Constr. with acc. of person, either alone or with gen., abl., de, in, ad, etc., of the crime and punishment: damnatur aliquis crimine vel judicio, sed sceleris, parricidii, etc., Lachm. ad Lucr. 2, p. 273 sq.; cf. Munro, ad Lucr. 4, 1183: Zumpt, Gr. § 446 sq.; Roby, Gr. § 1199 sq.
          1. (α) With acc. pers. alone: ergo ille damnatus est: neque solum primis sententiis, quibus tantum statuebant judices, damnarent an absolverent, sed etiam illis, etc., Cic. de Or. 1, 54, 231; id. Rosc. Am. 39, 114: censoris judicium nihil fere damnato nisi ruborem affert, id. Rep. 4, 6 (fragm. ap. Non. 24, 9): ego accusavi, vos damnastis, Dom. Afer ap. Quint. 5, 10, 79 et saep.
            Transf., of things: causa judicata atque damnata, Cic. Rab. perd. 4; id. Clu. 3.
          2. (β) With acc. pers. and gen. (criminis or poenae): ambitus damnati, Caes. B. C. 3, 1, 4; Cic. Brut. 48 fin.: furti, id. Flacc. 18, 43: injuriarum, id. Verr. 2, 5, 41 fin.: majestatis, id. Phil. 1, 9, 23: peculatus, id. Verr. 1, 13, 39: rei capitalis, id. de Sen. 12, 42; sceleris conjurationisque, id. Verr. 2, 5, 5 Zumpt N. cr., et saep.: capitis, Caes. B. C. 3, 83, 4; 3, 110, 4: octupli, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 11, § 28: absentem capitalis poenae, Liv. 42, 43, 9; cf.: crimine falso damnari mortis, Verg. A. 6, 430.
          3. (γ) With abl.: ut is eo crimine damnaretur, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 45; so, capite, id. Tusc. 1, 22 al.: morte, Sen. Herc. Oet. 888: tertiā parte agri, Liv. 10, 1, 3: pecuniā, Just. 8, 1, 7; cf.: Milo Clodio interfecto eo nomine erat damnatus, on that account, Caes. B. C. 3, 21, 4; morti (abl.) damnare, Liv. 4, 37, 6, v. Weissenb. ad loc.
          4. (δ) With de: de majestate damnatus, Cic. Verr. 1, 13, 39: de vi et de majestate, id. Phil. 1, 9: de vi publica, Tac. A. 4, 13 al.; cf. quibus de causis damnati, Val. Max. 8, 1 init.
            (ε) With in or ad: nec in metallum damnabuntur, nec in opus publicum, vel ad bestias, Dig. 49, 18, 3: ad mortem, Tac. A. 16, 21; ad extremum supplicium, id. ib. 6, 38: Suet. Cal. 27; id. Ner. 31.
            (ζ) With ut, Tac. A. 2, 67.
            (η) With quod: Athenienses Socratem damnaverunt quod novam religionem introducere videbatur, Val. Max. 1, 1, 7, ext. 7: Baebius est damnatus, quod milites praebuisset, etc., Liv. 45, 31, 2.
            (θ) With cur: damnabantur cur jocati essent, Spart. Sev. 14, § 13.
    1. B. Transf.
      1. 1. To bind or oblige one’s heir by last will and testament to the performance of any act.
        Constr. with ut, ne, or the inf.: si damnaverit heredem suum, ut, etc., Dig. 12, 6, 26; with ne, ib. 8, 4, 16; with inf.: heredem dare, etc., ib. 30, 12: Hor. S. 2, 3, 86.
      2. 2. In a non-legal sense, to condemn, censure, judge: (with acc. pers. and gen. or abl.) aliquem summae stultitiae, Cic. Part. 38, 134: damnatus longi Sisyphus laboris, Hor. Od. 2, 14, 19: stultitiaeque ibi se damnet (amator), Lucr. 4, 1179: damnare aliquem voti (poet. and late Lat., voto, votis), to condemn one to fulfil his vow, i. e. by granting his prayer (not in Cic.): damnabis tu quoque votis, Verg. E. 5, 80, Serv. and Heyne: voto, Sisenn. ap. Non. 277, 11: voti, Liv. 10, 37 fin.; 27, 45: voto damnatus, Hyg. Astr. 2, 24; Lact. Fab. 10, 8 (cf.: voti, Titin. and Turpil. ap. Non. 277, 6 and 10; Titin. Fr. 153; Turpil. Fr. 128 Ribb.): morti, Lucr. 6, 1231; cf.: Stygio caput damnaverat Orco, Verg. A. 4, 699: damnati turis acervi, devoted to the gods below, Stat. S. 2, 21 et saep.; cf. also: quem damnet (sc. leto) labor, Verg. A. 12, 727 Heyne: damnare eum Senecam et invisum quoque habere, to condemn, censure, disapprove, Quint. 10, 1, 125: videntur magnopere damnandi, qui, etc., id. 5, 1, 2: debitori suo creditor saepe damnatur, Sen. Ben. 6, 4, 4.
        Of inanimate objects, to condemn, reject: ne damnent quae non intelligunt, id. 10, 1, 26; cf. id. 10, 4, 2; 11, 3, 70 et saep.
        Part. fut. pass. as subst.: quem non puduisset damnanda committere, Plin. Ep. 3, 9, 5.
  3. II. Of the plaintiff, to seek or effect a person’s condemnation (rare): quem ad recuperatores modo damnavit Plesidippus, Plaut. Rud. 5, 1, 2; Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6: Verrem, quem M. Cicero damnaverat, Plin. 34, 2, 3, § 6; Liv. 7, 16, 9; cf. condemno, no. II., and condemnator, no. II.
    Hence,damnātus, a, um, P. a.
  1. I. Prop., condemned: dicet damnatas ignea testa manus, Prop. 5, 7, 38.
  2. II. Meton. (effectus pro causa), reprobate, criminal: quis te miserior? quis te damnatior? Cic. Pis. 40: damnati lingua vocem habet, vim non habet, Pub. Syr. 142 (Ribb.).
    1. B. Hateful, wretched: damnatae noctes, Prop. 4, 12 (5, 11 M.), 15.

damnōse, adv., v. next art. fin.

damnōsus, a, um, adj. [damnum], full of injury; and hence,

  1. I. Act., that causes injury, injurious, hurtful, destructive, pernicious (very freq. since the Aug. period, not in Cicero or Caesar): quid tibi commerci est cum dis damnosissimis? Plaut. Bac. 1, 2, 9; cf. Venus, Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 21: libido, id. ib. 2, 1, 107: canes, the worst cast of the tali (v. canis), Prop. 4, 8, 46; cf. Isid. Orig. 18, 65 al.: et reipublicae et societatibus infidus damnosusque, Liv. 25, 1: bellum sumptuosum et damnosum ipsis Romanis, id. 45, 3; Ov. M. 10, 707 et saep.
  2. * II. Pass., that suffers injury, injured, unfortunate: senex, Plaut. Epid. 2, 3, 14.
  3. III. Mid., that injures himself, wasteful, prodigal; a spendthrift: dites mariti, Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 24: id. Ps. 1, 5, 1; Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 11: non in alia re damnosior quam in aedificando, Suet. Ner. 31.
    * Adv.: damnōse (acc. to no. I.), in conversational language = immodice: nos nisi damnose bibimus, moriemur inulti, to the injury of the host, i. e. deep, hard, Hor. S. 2, 8, 34.

damnum (late Lat. sometimes dampnum), i, n. [for daminum, neut. of old Part. of dare, = τὸ διδόμενον, v. Ritschl, Opusc. Phil. 2, 709 sq. Less correctly regarded as akin to δαπάνη. Cf. Varr. L. L. 5, § 176 Müll.; Dig. 39, 2, 3], hurt, harm, damage, injury, loss; opp. to lucrum (syn. jactura, detrimentum, incommodum, dispendium. Freq. and class.).

  1. I. In gen.: hauscit, hoc paullum lucri quantum ei damni adportet, Ter. Heaut. 4, 4, 25; cf.: si in maximis lucris paullum aliquid damni contraxerit, Cic. Fin. 5, 30, 91; id. Verr. 2, 1, 12 (with dedecus, as in Plaut. Bac. 1, 1, 37; Sall. J. 31, 19; Hor. S. 1, 2, 52; 2, 2, 96 et saep.); Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 13; id. Phil. 2, 27, 67; Hor. S. 2, 3, 300; id. Ep. 1, 7, 88 et saep.: propter damna aut detrimenta aliquos miseros esse, Cic. Leg. 1, 19, 51; so with detrimenta, id. Verr. 2, 3, 98; with jactura, id. Agr. 1, 7, 21: duarum cohortium damno exercitum reducere, * Caes. B. G. 6, 44; cf. Tac. A. 1, 71; id. H. 2, 66; Curt. 8, 4; Frontin. Strat. 2, 5, 31 fin.: damnum dare alicui, to inflict upon one (ante-classical), Cato R. R. 149 (twice); Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 108; id. Truc. 2, 1, 17; Ter. Andr. 1, 1, 116: facere, to suffer, sustain, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 77 (opp. lucrum); Cic. Brut. 33; id. Fam. 7, 33; 10, 28, 3 al.; but also, to inflict a penalty, Dig. 9, 2, 30, § 3; Ov. Fast. 5, 311: capere, Dig. 9, 2, 39; and in the alliterative passage: in palaestram, ubi damnis desudascitur, Ubi pro disco damnum capiam, Plaut. Bac. 1, 1, 34: accipere, Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 28; Dig. 39, 2, 25: pati, to suffer harm, Sen. Ira, 1, 2; Dig. 9, 2, 29 (but damnum pati, also, to permit, put up with harm, Liv. 22, 41, 4; Luc. 8, 750): ferre (a favorite expression of Ovid), Ov. H. 15, 64; id. F. 1, 60; 2, 522; id. Tr. 3, 8, 34 al.: contrahere (of disease), id. Pont. 1, 10, 29 et saep.: pervenit ad miseros damno graviore colonos Pestis, id. M. 7, 552; cf. id. ib. 3, 213; 8, 777: damna tamen celeres reparant caelestia lunae, i. e. of the waning of the moon, Hor. Od. 4, 7, 13: naturae damnum, natural defect, Liv. 7, 4 fin.
    Prov.: damnum appellandum est cum mala fama lucrum, Pub. Syr. 135 (Ribb.).
    1. B. Transf., of persons: hoc ad damnum (i. e. scortum) deferetur, Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 24: cf. ib. 21 and 60; Ov. M. 11, 381; 12, 16; cf. id. ib. 11, 133.
  2. II. Esp. in law.
    1. A. A fine, mulct, penalty, Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 182; Liv. 4, 53, 7; 7, 4, 2; Gell. 20, 1, 32: quis umquam tanto damno senatorem coegit? Cic. Phil. 1, 5 fin.: eos (leges) morte, exsilio, vinclis, damno coercent, id. Off. 3, 5, 23.
    2. B. Freq. in the terms,
      1. 1. damnum injuria (datum), i. e. an injury done to another’s beast or slave, for which the lex Aquilia provided compensation, (Caesulenus senex) cum ab Sabellio multam lege Aquilia damni injuria petivisset, Cic. Brut. 34, 131; id. Tull. 4, 8; 5, 11; 17, 41.
      2. 2. Damnum infectum, an injury not done but threatened, and against which the person endangered might require security, Cic. Top. 4, 22; Dig. 39, 2, 3; Plin. 36, 2, 2, § 6 (cf. infectus).

Dāmō̆cles, is, m., a courtier of Dionysius the younger, Cic. Tusc. 5, 21, 6 (cf. Hor. Od. 3, 1, 17; Pers. 3, 40).

Dāmoetas, ae, m., Δαμοίτας, name of a shepherd, Verg. E. 3, 1.

Dāmon, ōnis, m. Δάμων.

  1. I. A Pythagorean, celebrated on account of the friendship between him and Phintias, Cic. Off. 3, 10, 45; Val. Max. 4, 7.
  2. II. An Athenian musician, teacher of Socrates, Cic. de Or. 3, 33; Nep. Epam. 2.
  3. III. A goat-herd, Verg. E. 3, 17; 8, 1 sq.

dampno, v. damno init.

dāmŭla (damm-), ae, f. dim. [damma], a little fallow-deer, App. M. 8, p. 202, 26; Vulg. Isa. 13, 14.

dane = dasne, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 22; v. do init.

Dănăē, ēs, f., Δανάη,

  1. I. daughter of Acrisius, and mother of Perseus by Zeus, who visited her in the form of a shower of gold, when she was shut up in a tower by her father, Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 37; Hor. Od. 3, 16, 1 sq.; Serv. Verg. A. 7, 372; Hyg. Fab. 63; Lact. 1, 11, 18; Prop. 2, 20, 12 (3, 13, 12 M.); 2, 32, 59 (3, 30, 59 M.); Ov. Met. 4, 610; id. Tr. 2, 401; Verg. A. 7, 410 al.
    Hence,
  2. II. Dănăēĭus, a, um, adj., Δαναήϊος, pertaining to Danae, descended from Danae: heros, i. e. Perseus, Ov. M. 5, 1; called also volucer Danaeius, Stat. Th. 10, 892; Persis (so named after Perses, the son of Perseus, and ancestor of the Persians), Ov. A. A. 1, 225.

Dănăi, v. Danaus, II. A.

Dănaster, tri, m., a river forming the boundary between Dacia and Sarmatia, now the Dniester, Mel. 2, 1; Amm. Marc. 31, 3, 3 (class. Tyras).

Dănăus, i, m., Δαναός,

  1. I. son of Belus, and twin-brother of Aegyptus: he was the father of fifty daughters; he emigrated from Egypt into Greece, and there founded Argos; was slain by Lynceus, after a reign of fifty years, Hyg. Fab. 168; 170; Serv. Verg. A. 10, 497; Cic. Parad. 6, 1, 44; cf. under no. II. B.
    Danai porticus, at Rome, dedicated by Augustus to the Palatine Apollo (726 A. U. C.), famed for its statues of Danaus and his daughters, Ov. Am. 2, 2, 4; cf. Prop. 2, 31, 4 (3, 29, 4 M.); Tibul. 1, 3, 79; Ov. Tr. 3, 1, 60.
  2. II. Derivv.
    1. A. Dănăus, a, um, adj. (belonging to Danaus; hence, in the poets, meton.), Greek, Grecian: classes, Ov. M. 13, 92; cf. rates, Prop. 3, 22, 34 (4, 22, 34 M.): flammae, Ov. M. 14, 467: ignis, id. Her. 8, 14: miles, id. ib. 24: manus, id. R. Am. 66: res, id. M. 13, 59. Esp. freq.,
    1. A. Subst. plur.: Dănăi, ōrum, m., the Danai, for the Greeks (esp. freq. of the Greeks before Troy), Cic. Tusc. 4, 23, 52; id. Fin. 2, 6, 18; Prop. 3, 8, 31 (4, 7, 31 M.); Verg. A. 2, 5 et saep.
      Gen. plur.: Danaum, Lucr. 1, 87; Prop. 2, 26, 38 (3, 22, 18 M.); 3, 9, 40 (4, 8, 40 M.); Verg. A. 1, 30 et saep.
    2. B. Dănăĭdes, um, f., [?*DANAI+/(DES ?], the daughters of Danaus, the Danaides, who, with the exception of Hypermnestra, murdered their husbands at their father’s command, Hyg. Fab. 170; 255; Sen. Herc. Fur. 757. The classical poets substitute Danai proles, Tib. 1, 3, 79; cf. Prop. 2, 31, 4 (3, 29, 4 M.): Danai puellae, Hor. Od. 3, 11, 23: Danai genus infame, id. ib. 2, 14, 18.
    3. C. Dănăĭdae, ārum, m., Δαναΐδαι = Danai (v. no. II. A.), the Greeks, Sen. Troad. 611.

Dandări (Tindări), ōrum, m., Δανδάριοι, a Scythian tribe in Asiatic Sarmatia, S. E. of the Palus Maeotis, Plin. 6, 7, 7, § 19: also called Dandăridae, Tac. A. 12, 15; and their country Dandă-rica, id. ib. 16.

Dāni, ōrum, m., the Danes, the people of Denmark, Venant. Carm. 7, 7, 50; Jornand. de Reb. Getic. p. 83.
Hence,

  1. A. Dā-nĭa, ae, f., Denmark, Aen. Silv. Hist. Fred. III. p. 131.
  2. B. Dānĭcus, a, um, adj., Danish, id. ib.

Dănĭēl, ēlis, m., the Hebrew prophet, Vulg. Dan. passim, Ezek. 14, 14.

dănīsta, ae, m., = δανειστής, a money-lender, usurer: fenerator (only in Plautus), Plaut. Epid. 1, 1, 51; 2, 2, 67; id. Most. 3, 1, 6; id. Ps. 1, 3, 53; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 68, 14.
Hence, dănīstĭcus, a, um, adj., = δανειστικός, money-lending, usurious: genus hominum, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 129.

dăno, v. do, ad init.

Dānŭvĭus (the ending -ubius is a corruption of late Latin, Corss. Ausspr. 1, 126), ii, m., Δανούβιος,

  1. I. the Danube (in the upper part of its course; in the lower called Ister, though the poets use both names promiscuously), Mel. 2, 1, 8; Plin. 4, 12, 25, § 80; Amm. 22, 9; * Caes. B. G. 6, 25; Sall. H. Fragm. ap. Acr. Hor. A. P. 18 (3, 9 Dietsch); Tac. G. 29; Ov. Pont. 4, 9, 80; id. Tr. 2, 192 al.; Hor. Od. 4, 15, 21; Tac. G. 1; id. A. 2, 53; Orell. Inscr. 648 al.
    Hence,
  2. II. Dānŭvīnus (Danub-), a, um, adj., of or belonging to the Danube, Danubian: limes, Sid. Ep. 8, 12.

dăpālĭs, e, adj. [daps], belonging to a sacrificial feast (ante and post-class.): cena, Titin. ap. Non. 95, 5 (v. 136 Ribbeck); Aus. Ep. 9, 13: Juppiter, to whom such a cena was offered, Cato, R. R. 132.

dăpātĭce = magnifice, and dăpātĭ-cus = magnificus, Paul. ex Fest. p. 68, 4 and 5 Müll. [daps].

Daphitas (-das), ae, m., a sophist of Telmessus, killed by falling from his horse, Cic. de Fat. 3, 5.

dā̆phne (Inscr. freq. DAPHINE, v. Ritschl, Opusc. Phil. 2, 483 sq.), ēs, f., = δάφνη,

  1. I. the laurel-tree, bay-tree: baccis redimita daphne, Petr. 131, 8.
    Hence,
  2. II. Proper name Daphne, es, f.
    1. A. The daughter of the river-god Peneus; she was changed into a laurel-tree, Ov. M. 1, 452; id. H. 15, 25; Hyg. Fab. 203; Serv. Verg. A. 3, 91: according to Serv. Verg. A. 2, 513, and id. Ecl. 3, 63, daughter of the river-god Ladon.
    2. B. A place in Syria, near Antioch, Liv. 33, 49; Hieron. in Ezech. 47, 18; Amm. 19, 12; Vulg. 2 Macc. 4, 33.
      Hence,
      1. 1. Daphnaeus, a, um, adj., of or at Daphne, Apollo, Amm. 22, 13, 1.
      2. 2. Daphnensis, e, adj., belonging to Daphne: lucus, Cod. Just. 11, 77, 1: palatium, Cod. Theod. 15, 2, 2.

daphnĭa, ae, f., an unknown precious stone, Plin. 37, 10, 57, § 157.

Daphnis, ĭdis, m., Δάφνις.

  1. I. A son of Mercury, a beautiful young shepherd in Sicily, the inventor of pastoral songs, and hence a favorite of Pan, Ov. M. 4, 277.
    Acc. usu. Daphnim, Verg. E. 2, 26; 5, 20; 7, 7 et saep: Daphnin, id. ib. 5, 52; Prop. 2, 34, 68 (3, 32, 68 M.).
  2. II. A grammarian, sportively called, in allusion to the preceding, Πανὸς ἀγάπημα, Suet. Gramm. 3; Plin. 7, 39, 40, § 128.

dāphnŏīdes, ae, f., = δαφνοειδής (laurel-like).

  1. I. A sort of cassia, Plin. 12, 20, 43, § 98.
  2. II. Spurge-laurel or mezereon, Daphne Mezereum, Linn.; Plin. 15, 30, 39, § 132.
  3. III. The plant called also Clematis Aegyptia, Plin. 24, 15, 90, § 141.

daphnōn, ōnis, m., = δαφνών, a laurel-grove, Petr. 126, 12; Mart. 10, 79, 5; 12, 51, 1.

dăpĭfer, ĕri, m. [daps-fero], a servant who waited at table, Inscr. Murat. 915, 3: cf. dapifer, σιτοφόρος, Gloss. Philox.

dăpĭfex, icis, m. [daps-facio], a servant who prepared food, Inscr. Murat. 1322, 9.

* dăpĭno, āre, v. a. [daps, cf. Gr. δεῖπνον], to serve up, as food: victum, Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 117.

daps or dăpis, dăpis (nom. daps obsol. Paul. Diac. p. 68, 3: dapis, Juvenc. ap. Auct. de gen. nom. p. 78.
The gen. pl. and dat. sing. do not occur, but are supplied by epulae, cena, convivium, q. v.), f. [stem, dap-, Gr. δαπάνη, expense: cf. δεῖπνον; R. da-, Gr. δαίω, to distribute; Sanscr. dapajami, to cause to divide], a solemn feast for religious purposes, a sacrificial feast (before beginning to till the ground; the Greek προηρόσια, made in honor of some divinity, in memory of departed friends, etc. Thus distinguished from epulae, a meal of any kind: convivium, a meal or feast for company; epulum, a formal or public dinner, v. h. v.).

  1. I. Prop.: dapem pro bubus piro florente facitopostea dape facta serito milium, panicum, alium, lentim, Cato R. R. 131 and 132; id. ib. 50 fin.: pro grege, an offering for the protection of the flock, Tib. 1, 5, 28; Liv. 1, 7 ad fin.: ergo obligatam redde Jovi dapem, Hor. Od. 2, 7, 17: nunc Saliaribus Ornare pulvinar deorum Tempus erat dapibus, id. ib. 1, 37, 4: sollemnis dapes et tristia dona, Verg. A. 3, 301.
  2. II. Transf. by the poets and post-Augustan prose-writers beyond the sphere of religion, and used of every (esp. rich, sumptuous) meal, a feast, banquet, in the sing. and plur. (in Verg. passim, in Tibul. in this signif. only plur.).
          1. (α) Sing.: ne cum tyranno quisquameandem vescatur dapem, Att. ap. Non. 415, 25 (v. 217 Ribbeck): quae haec daps est? qui festus dies? Liv. Andr. ap. Prisc. p. 752 P. (transl. of Hom. Od. 1, 225: τίς δαΐς, τίς δὲ ὅμιλος ὅδ’ ἔπλετο); so Catull. 64, 305; Hor. Od. 4, 4, 12; id. Epod. 5, 33; id. Ep. 1, 17, 51: of a simple, poor meal, Ov. H. 9, 68; 16, 206. Opp. to wine: nunc dape, nunc posito mensae nituere Lyaeo, Ov. F. 5, 521; cf. so in plur., id. M. 8, 571; Verg. A. 1, 706.
          2. (β) Plur.: Tib. 1, 5, 49; 1, 10, 8; Verg. E. 6, 79; id. G. 4, 133; id. A. 1, 210 et saep.; Hor. Od. 1, 32, 13; id. Epod. 2, 48; Ov. M. 5, 113; 6, 664; Tac. A. 14, 22 et saep.: humanae, human excrement, Plin. 17, 9, 6, § 51.

dapsĭle, adv., sumptuously, bountifully, v. the foll. art., Adv., no. β fin.

dapsĭlis, e (abl. plur. dapsilis, Plaut. Ps. 1, 4, 3), adj. [δαψιλής, daps], sumptuous, bountiful, richly provided with every thing, abundant (mostly ante- and post-class.; in the class. period perhaps only in Colum. and Suet.): sumptus, Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 66: dotes, id. Aul. 2, 1, 45: corollae, id. Ps. 5, 1, 21: lectus, id. Truc. 1, 1, 34; lubentiae, id. Ps. 1, 4, 3: proventus (vitis), Col. 4, 27, 6: copia facundiae, App. M. 11, p. 258, 12.

        1. (β) With abl.: spionia dapsilis musto, Col. 3, 2, 27.
          Advv., sumptuously, bountifully.
  1. A. Form dapsĭlĭter: d. suos amicos alit, Naev. ap. Charis. p. 178 P. (v. 39 Ribbeck).
  2. B. Form dapsĭle: verrem sume dapsile ac dilucide, Pompon. ap. Non. 513, 27 (v. 161 Ribbeck): convivebatur, * Suet. Vesp. 19.
      1. * b. Comp. invitavit se dapsilius, Lucil. ap. Non. 321, 29.

dardănārĭus, ii, m., a speculator in corn, forestaller (law Lat.), Dig. 47, 11, 6; 48, 19, 37.

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