Lewis & Short

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ad, prep. with acc. (from the fourth century after Christ written also at; Etrusc. suf. -a; Osc. az; Umbr. and Old Lat. ar, as in Eug. Tab., in S. C. de Bacch., as arveho for adveho; arfuerunt, arfuisse, for adfuerunt, etc.; arbiter for adbiter; so, ar me advenias, Plant. Truc. 2, 2, 17; cf. Prisc. 559 P.; Vel. Long. 2232 P.; Fabretti, Glos. Ital. col. 5) [cf. Sanscr. adhi; Goth. and Eng. at; Celt. pref. ar, as armor, i.e. ad mare; Rom. a].

  1. I. As antith. to ab (as in to ex), in a progressive order of relation, ad denotes, first, the direction toward an object; then the reaching of or attaining to it; and finally, the being at or near it.
    1. A. In space.
      1. 1. Direction toward, to, toward, and first,
        1. a. Horizontally: fugere ad puppim colles campique videntur, the hills and fields appear to fly toward the ship, Lucr. 4, 390: meridie umbrae cadunt ad septentrionem, ortu vero ad occasum, to or toward the north and west, Plin. 2, 13, and so often of the geog. position of a place in reference to the points of compass, with the verbs jacere, vergere, spectare, etc.: Asia jacet ad meridiem et austrum, Europa ad septentriones et aquiionem, Varr. L. L. 5, § 31 Müll.; and in Plin. very freq.: Creta ad austrumad septentrionem versa, 4, 20: ad Atticam vergente, 4, 21 al.
          Also trop.: animus alius ad alia vitia propensior, Cic. Tusc. 4, 37, 81.
        2. b. In a direction upwards (esp. in the poets, very freq.): manusque sursum ad caelum sustulit, Naev. ap. Non. 116, 30 (B. Pun. p. 13, ed. Vahl.): manus ad caeli templa tendebam lacrimans, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 20, 40 (Ann. v. 50 ed. Vahl.); cf.: duplices tendens ad sidera palmas, Verg. A. 1, 93: molem ex profundo saxeam ad caelum vomit, Att. ap. Prisc. 1325 P.: clamor ad caelum volvendus, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 104 Müll. (Ann. v. 520 ed. Vahl.) (cf. with this: tollitur in caelum clamor, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, or Ann. v. 422): ad caelumque ferat flammai fulgura rursum, of Aetna, Lucr. 1, 725; cf. id. 2, 191; 2, 325: sidera sola micant; ad quae sua bracchia tendens, etc., Ov. M. 7, 188: altitudo pertingit ad caelum, Vulg. Dan. 4, 17.
        3. c. Also in the direction downwards (for the usu. in): tardiore semper ad terras omnium quae geruntur in caelo effectu cadente quam visu, Plin. 2, 97, 99, § 216.
      2. 2. The point or goal at which any thing arrives.
        1. a. Without reference to the space traversed in passing, to, toward (the most common use of this prep.): cum stupro redire ad suos popularīs, Naev. ap. Fest. p. 317 Müll. (B. Pun. p. 14 ed. Vahl.): ut ex tam alto dignitatis gradu ad superos videatur potius quam ad inferos pervenisse, Cic. Lael. 3, 12: ad terras decidat aether, Lucan. 2, 58.
          1. (α) With verbs which designate going, coming, moving, bearing, bringing near, adapting, taking, receiving, calling, exciting, admonishing, etc., when the verb is compounded with ad the prep. is not always repeated, but the constr. with the dat. or acc. employed; cf. Rudd. II. pp. 154, 175 n. (In the ante-class. per., and even in Cic., ad is generally repeated with most verbs, as, ad eos accedit, Cic. Sex. Rosc. 8: ad Sullam adire, id. ib. 25: ad se adferre, id. Verr. 4, 50: reticulum ad narīs sibi admovebat, id. ib. 5, 27: ad laborem adhortantur, id. de Sen. 14: T. Vectium ad se arcessit, id. Verr. 5, 114; but the poets of the Aug. per., and the historians, esp. Tac., prefer the dative; also, when the compound verb contains merely the idea of approach, the constr. with ad and the acc. is employed; but when it designates increase, that with the dat. is more usual: accedit ad urbem, he approaches the city; but, accedit provinciae, it is added to the province.)
          2. (β) Ad me, te, se, for domum meam, tuam, suam (in Plaut. and Ter. very freq.): oratus sum venire ad te huc, Plaut. Mil. 5, 1, 12: spectatores plaudite atque ite ad vos comissatum, id. Stich. fin.: eamus ad me, Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 64: ancillas traduce huc ad vos, id. Heaut. 4, 4, 22: transeundumst tibi ad Menedemum, id. 4, 4, 17: intro nos vocat ad sese, tenet intus apud se, Lucil. ap. Charis. p. 86 P.: te oro, ut ad me Vibonem statim venias, Cic. Att. 3, 3; 16, 10 al.
          3. (γ) Ad, with the name of a deity in the gen., is elliptical for ad templum or aedem (cf.: Thespiadas, quae ad aedem Felicitatis sunt, Cic. Verr. 4, 4; id. Phil. 2, 35: in aedem Veneris, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 120; in aedem Concordiae, Cic. Cat. 3, 9, 21; 2, 6, 12): ad Dianae, to the temple of, Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 43: ad Opis, Cic. Att. 8, 1, 14: ad Castoris, id. Quint. 17: ad Juturnae, id. Clu. 101: ad Vestae, Hor. S. 1, 9, 35 al.: cf. Rudd. II. p. 41, n. 4, and p. 334.
          4. (δ) With verbs which denote a giving, sending, informing, submitting, etc., it is used for the simple dat. (Rudd. II. p. 175): litteras dare ad aliquem, to send or write one a letter; and: litteras dare alicui, to give a letter to one; hence Cic. never says, like Caesar and Sall., alicui scribere, which strictly means, to write for one (as a receipt, etc.), but always mittere, scribere, perscribere ad aliquem: postea ad pistores dabo, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 119: praecipe quae ad patrem vis nuntiari, id. Capt. 2, 2, 109: in servitutem pauperem ad divitem dare, Ter. Ph. 4, 3, 48: nam ad me Publ. Valerius scripsit, Cic. Fam. 14, 2 med.: de meis rebus ad Lollium perscripsi, id. ib. 5, 3: velim domum ad te scribas, ut mihi tui libri pateant, id. Att. 4, 14; cf. id. ib. 4, 16: ad primam (sc. epistulam) tibi hoc scribo, in answer to your first, id. ib. 3, 15, 2: ad Q. Fulvium Cons. Hirpini et Lucani dediderunt sese, Liv. 27, 15, 1; cf. id. 28, 22, 5.
            Hence the phrase: mittere or scribere librum ad aliquem, to dedicate a book to one (Greek, προσφωνεῖν): has res ad te scriptas, Luci, misimus, Aeli, Lucil. Sat. 1, ap. Auct. Her. 4, 12: quae institueram, ad te mittam, Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 5: ego interea admonitu tuo perfeci sane argutulos libros ad Varronem; and soon after: mihi explices velim, maneasne in sententia, ut mittam ad eum quae scripsi, Cic. Att. 13, 18; cf. ib. 16; Plin. 1, 19.
            So in titles of books: M. Tullii Ciceronis ad Marcum Brutum Orator; M. T. Cic. ad Q. Fratrem Dialogi tres de Oratore, etc.
            In the titles of odes and epigrams ad aliquem signifies to, addressed to.
            (ε) With names of towns after verbs of motion, ad is used in answer to the question Whither? instead of the simple acc.; but commonly with this difference, that ad denotes to the vicinity of, the neighborhood of: miles ad Capuam profectus sum, quintoque anno post ad Tarentum, Cic. de Sen. 4, 10; id. Fam. 3, 81: ad Veios, Liv. 5, 19; 14, 18; cf. Caes. B. G. 1, 7; id. B. C. 3, 40 al.
            Ad is regularly used when the proper name has an appellative in apposition to it: ad Cirtam oppidum iter constituunt, Sall. J. 81, 2; so Curt. 3, 1, 22; 4, 9, 9; or when it is joined with usque, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 34, § 87; id. Deiot, 7, 19.
            (When an adjective is added, the simple acc. is used poet., as well as with ad: magnum iter ad doctas proficisci cogor Athenas, Prop. 3, 21, 1; the simple acc., Ov. H. 2, 83: doctas jam nunc eat, inquit, Athenas).
            (ζ) With verbs which imply a hostile movement toward, or protection in respect to any thing, against = adversus: nonne ad senem aliquam fabricam fingit? Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 34: Lernaeas pugnet ad hydras, Prop. 3, 19, 9: neque quo pacto fallam, nec quem dolum ad eum aut machinam commoliar, old poet in Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 73: Belgarum copias ad se venire vidit, Caes. B. G. 2, 5; 7, 70: ipse ad hostem vehitur, Nep. Dat. 4, 5; id. Dion. 5, 4: Romulus ad regem impetus facit (a phrase in which in is commonly found), Liv. 1, 5, 7, and 44, 3, 10: aliquem ad hostem ducere, Tac. A. 2, 52: clipeos ad tela protecti obiciunt, Verg. A. 2, 443: munio me ad haec tempora, Cic. Fam. 9, 18: ad hos omnes casus provisa erant praesidia, Caes. B. G. 7, 65; 7, 41; so with nouns: medicamentum ad aquam intercutem, Cic. Off. 3, 24: remedium ad tertianam, Petr. Sat. 18: munimen ad imbrīs, Verg. G. 2, 352: farina cum melle ad tussim siccam efficasissima est, Plin. 20, 22, 89, § 243: ad muliebre ingenium efficaces preces, Liv. 1, 9; 1, 19 (in these two passages ad may have the force of apud, Hand).
            (η) The repetition of ad to denote the direction to a place and to a person present in it is rare: nunc tu abi ad forum ad herum, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 100; cf.: vocatis classico ad concilium militibus ad tribunos, Liv. 5 47.
            (The distinction between ad and in is given by Diom. 409 P., thus: in forum ire est in ipsum forum intrare; ad forum autem ire, in locum foro proximum; ut in tribunal et ad tribunal venire non unum est; quia ad tribunal venit litigator, in tribunal vero praetor aut judex; cf. also Sen. Ep. 73, 14, deus ad homines venit, immo, quod propius est, in homines venit.)
        2. b. The terminus, with ref. to the space traversed, to, even to, with or without usque, Quint. 10, 7, 16: ingurgitavit usque ad imum gutturem, Naev. ap. Non. 207, 20 (Rib. Com. Rel. p. 30): dictator pervehitur usque ad oppidum, Naev. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 153 Müll. (B. Pun. p. 16 ed. Vahl.): via pejor ad usque Baii moenia, Hor. S. 1, 5, 96; 1, 1, 97: rigidum permanat frigus ad ossa, Lucr. 1, 355; 1, 969: cum sudor ad imos Manaret talos, Hor. S. 1, 9, 10: ut quantum posset, agmen ad mare extenderet, Curt. 3, 9, 10: laeva pars ad pectus est nuda, id. 6, 5, 27 al.
          Hence the Plinian expression, petere aliquid (usque) ad aliquem, to seek something everywhere, even with one: ut ad Aethiopas usque peteretur, Plin. 36, 6, 9, § 51 (where Jan now reads ab Aethiopia); so, vestīs ad Seras peti, id. 12, 1, 1.
          Trop.: si quid poscam, usque ad ravim poscam, Plaut. Aul. 2, 5, 10: deverberāsse usque ad necem, Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 13; without usque: hic ad incitas redactus, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 136; 4, 2, 52; id. Poen. 4, 2, 85; illud ad incitas cum redit atque internecionem, Lucil. ap. Non. 123, 20: virgis ad necem caedi, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; so Hor. S. 1, 2, 42; Liv. 24, 38, 9; Tac. A. 11, 37; Suet. Ner. 26; id. Dom. 8 al.
      3. 3. Nearness or proximity in gen. = apud, near to, by, at, close by (in anteclass. per. very freq.; not rare later, esp. in the historians): pendent peniculamenta unum ad quemque pedum, trains are suspended at each foot, Enn. ap. Non. 149, 33 (Ann. v. 363 ed. Vahl.): ut in servitute hic ad suum maneat patrem, Plaut. Capt. prol. 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 3, 98; 3, 5, 41: sol quasi flagitator astat usque ad ostium, stands like a creditor continually at the door, id. Most. 3, 2, 81 (cf. with same force, Att. ap. Non. 522, 25; apud ipsum astas): ad forīs adsistere, Cic. Verr. 1, 66; id. Arch. 24: astiterunt ad januam, Vulg. Act. 10, 17: non adest ad exercitum, Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 6; cf. ib. prol. 133: aderant ad spectaculum istud, Vulg. Luc. 23, 48: has (testas) e fenestris in caput Deiciunt, qui prope ad ostium adspiraverunt, Lucil. ap. Non. 288, 31: et nec opinanti Mors ad caput adstitit, Lucr. 3, 959: quod Romanis ad manum domi supplementum esset, at hand, Liv. 9, 19, 6: haec arma habere ad manum, Quint. 12, 5, 1: dominum esse ad villam, Cic. Sull. 20; so id. Verr. 2, 21: errantem ad flumina, Verg. E. 6, 64; Tib. 1, 10, 38; Plin. 7, 2, § 12; Vitr. 7, 14; 7, 12; and ellipt. (cf. supra, 2. γ): pecunia utinam ad Opis maneret! Cic. Phil. 1, 17.
        Even of persons: qui primum pilum ad Caesarem duxerat (for apud), Caes. B. G. 6, 38; so id. ib. 1, 31; 3, 9; 5, 53; 7, 5; id. B. C. 3, 60: ad inferos poenas parricidii luent, among, Cic. Phil. 14, 13: neque segnius ad hostes bellum apparatur, Liv. 7, 7, 4: pugna ad Trebiam, ad Trasimenum, ad Cannas, etc., for which Liv. also uses the gen.: si Trasimeni quam Trebiae, si Cannarum quam Trasimeni pugna nobilior esset, 23, 43, 4.
        Sometimes used to form the name of a place, although written separately, e. g. ad Murcim, Varr. L. L. 5, § 154: villa ad Gallinas, a villa on the Flaminian Way, Plin. 15, 30, 40, § 37: ad urbem esse (of generals), to remain outside the city (Rome) until permission was given for a triumph:Esse ad urbem dicebantur, qui cum potestate provinciali aut nuper e provincia revertissent, aut nondum in provinciam profecti essentsolebant autem, qui ob res in provincia gestas triumphum peterent, extra urbem exspectare, donec, lege lata, triumphantes urbem introire possent,” Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 3, 8.
        So sometimes with names of towns and verbs of rest: pons, qui erat ad Genavam, Caes. B. G. 1, 7: ad Tibur mortem patri minatus est, Cic. Phil. 6, 4, 10: conchas ad Caietam legunt, id. Or. 2, 6: ad forum esse, to be at the market, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 136; id. Most. 3, 2, 158; cf. Ter. Ph. 4, 2, 8; id. And. 1, 5, 19.
        Hence, adverb., ad dextram (sc. manum, partem), ad laevam, ad sinistram, to the right, to the left, or on the right, on the left: ad dextram, Att. Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 225; Plaut. Poen. 3, 4, 1; Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 44; Cic. Univ. 13; Caes. B. C. 1, 69: ad laevam, Enn. Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 51; Att. ib. p. 217: ad sinistram, Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 43 al.: ad dextramad laevam, Liv. 40, 6; and with an ordinal number: cum plebes ad tertium milliarium consedisset, at the third milestone, Cic. Brut. 14, 54, esp. freq. with lapis: sepultus ad quintum lapidem, Nep. Att. 22, 4; so Liv. 3, 69 al.; Tac. H. 3, 18; 4, 60 (with apud, Ann. 1, 45; 3, 45; 15, 60) al.; cf. Rudd. II. p. 287.
    2. B. In time, analogous to the relations given in A.
      1. 1. Direction toward, i. e. approach to a definite point of time, about, toward: domum reductus ad vesperum, toward evening, Cic. Lael. 3, 12: cum ad hiemem me ex Cilicia recepissem, toward winter, id. Fam. 3, 7.
      2. 2. The limit or boundary to which a space of time extends, with and without usque, till, until, to, even to, up to: ego ad illud frugi usque et probus fui, Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 53: philosophia jacuit usque ad hanc aetatem, Cic. Tusc. 1, 3, 5; id. de Sen. 14: quid si hic manebo potius ad meridiem, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 55; so id. Men. 5, 7, 33; id. Ps. 1, 5, 116; id. As. 2, 1, 5: ad multam noctem, Cic. de Sen. 14: Sophocles ad summam senectutem tragoedias fecit, id. ib. 2; cf. id. Rep. 1, 1: Alexandream se proficisci velle dixit (Aratus) remque integram ad reditum suum jussit esse, id. Off. 2, 23, 82: bestiae ex se natos amant ad quoddam tempus, id. Lael. 8; so id. de Sen. 6; id. Somn. Sc. 1 al.
        And with ab or ab-usque, to desig. the whole period of time passed away: ab hora octava ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus, Cic. Att. 7, 8: usque ab aurora ad hoc diei, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 8.
      3. 3. Coincidence with a point of time, at, on, in, by: praesto fuit ad horam destinatam, at the appointed hour, Cic. Tusc. 5, 22: admonuit ut pecuniam ad diem solverent, on the day of payment, id. Att. 16, 16 A: nostra ad diem dictam fient, id. Fam. 16, 10, 4; cf. id. Verr. 2, 2, 5: ad lucem denique arte et graviter dormitare coepisse, at (not toward) daybreak, id. Div. 1, 28, 59; so id. Att. 1, 3, 2; 1, 4, 3; id. Fin. 2, 31, 103; id. Brut. 97, 313: ad id tempus, Caes. B. C. 1, 24; Sall. J. 70, 5; Tac. A. 15, 60; Suet. Aug. 87; Domit. 17, 21 al.
    3. C. The relations of number.
      1. 1. An approximation to a sum designated, near, near to, almost, about, toward (cf. Gr. ἐπί, πρός with acc. and the Fr. près de, à peu près, presque) = circiter (Hand, Turs. I. p. 102): ad quadraginta eam posse emi minas, Plaut. Ep. 2, 2, 111: nummorum Philippūm ad tria milia, id. Trin. 1, 2, 115; sometimes with quasi added: quasi ad quadraginta minas, as it were about, id. Most. 3, 1, 95; so Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 93: sane frequentes fuimus omnino ad ducentos, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 1: cum annos ad quadraginta natus esset, id. Clu. 40, 110: ad hominum milia decem, Caes. B. G. 1, 4: oppida numero ad duodecim, vicos ad quadringentos, id. ib. 1, 5.
        In the histt. and post-Aug. authors ad is added adverbially in this sense (contrary to Gr. usage, by which ἀμφί, περί, and εἰς with numerals retain their power as prepositions): ad binum milium numero utrinque sauciis factis, Sisenn. ap. Non. 80, 4: occisis ad hominum milibus quattuor, Caes. B. G. 2, 33: ad duorum milium numero ceciderunt, id. B. C. 3, 53: ad duo milia et trecenti occisi, Liv. 10, 17, 8; so id. 27, 12, 16; Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Rudd. II. p. 334.
      2. 2. The terminus, the limit, to, unto, even to, a designated number (rare): ranam luridam conicere in aquam usque quo ad tertiam partem decoxeris, Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 26; cf. App. Herb. 41: aedem Junonis ad partem dimidiam detegit, even to the half, Liv. 42, 3, 2: miles (viaticum) ad assem perdiderat, to a farthing, to the last farthing, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 27; Plin. Ep. 1, 15: quid ad denarium solveretur, Cic. Quint. 4.
        The phrase omnes ad unum or ad unum omnes, or simply ad unum, means lit. all to one, i. e. all together, all without exception; Gr. οἱ καθ’ ἕνα πάντες (therefore the gender of unum is changed according to that of omnes): praetor omnes extra castra, ut stercus, foras ejecit ad unum, Lucil. ap. Non. 394, 22: de amicitia omnes ad unum idem sentiunt, Cic. Lael. 23: ad unum omnes cum ipso duce occisi sunt, Curt. 4, 1, 22 al.: naves Rhodias afflixit ita, ut ad unam omnes constratae eliderentur, Caes. B. C. 3, 27; onerariae omnes ad unam a nobis sunt exceptae, Cic. Fam. 12, 14 (cf. in Gr. οἱ καθ’ ἕνα; in Hebr. [??], Exod. 14, 28).
        Ad unum without omnes: ego eam sententiam dixi, cui sunt assensi ad unum, Cic. Fam. 10, 16: Juppiter omnipotens si nondum exosus ad unum Trojanos, Verg. A. 5, 687.
    4. D. In the manifold relations of one object to another.
      1. 1. That in respect of or in regard to which a thing avails, happens, or is true or important, with regard to, in respect of, in relation to, as to, to, in.
        1. a. With verbs: ad omnia alia aetate sapimus rectius, in respect to all other things we grow wiser by age, Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 45: numquam ita quisquam bene ad vitam fuat, id. ib. 5, 4, 1: nil ibi libatum de toto corpore (mortui) cernas ad speciem, nil ad pondus, that nothing is lost in form or weight, Lucr. 3, 214; cf. id. 5, 570; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 21, § 58; id. Mur. 13, 29: illi regi Cyro subest, ad immutandi animi licentiam, crudelissimus ille Phalaris, in that Cyrus, in regard to the liberty of changing his disposition (i. e. not in reality, but inasmuch as he is at liberty to lay aside his good character, and assume that of a tyrant), there is concealed another cruel Phalaris, Cic. Rep. 1, 28: nil est ad nos, is nothing to us, concerns us not, Lucr. 3, 830; 3, 845: nil ad me attinet, Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 54: nihil ad rem pertinet, Cic. Caecin. 58; and in the same sense elliptically: nihil ad Epicurum, id. Fin. 1, 2, 5; id. Pis. 68: Quid ad praetorem? id. Verr. 1, 116 (this usage is not to be confounded with that under 4.).
        2. b. With adjectives: ad has res perspicax, Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 129: virum ad cetera egregium, Liv. 37, 7, 15: auxiliaribus ad pugnam non multum Crassus confidebat, Caes. B. G. 3, 25: ejus frater aliquantum ad rem est avidior, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 51; cf. id. And. 1, 2, 21; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 129: ut sit potior, qui prior ad dandum est, id. Phorm. 3, 2, 48: difficilis (res) ad credendum, Lucr. 2, 1027: ad rationem sollertiamque praestantior, Cic. N. D. 2, 62; so id. Leg. 2, 13, 33; id. Fin. 2, 20, 63; id. Rosc. Am. 30, 85; id. Font. 15; id. Cat. 1, 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 25, 113; 1, 32, 146; 2, 49, 200; id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; Liv. 9, 16, 13; Tac. A. 12, 54 al.
        3. c. With nouns: prius quam tuum, ut sese habeat, animum ad nuptias perspexerit, before he knew your feeling in regard to the marriage, Ter. And. 2, 3, 4 (cf. Gr. ὅπως ἔχει τις πρός τι): mentis ad omnia caecitas, Cic. Tusc. 3, 5, 11: magna vis est fortunae in utramque partem vel ad secundas res vel ad adversas, id. Off. 2, 6; so id. Par. 1: ad cetera paene gemelli, Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 3.
          So with acc. of gerund instead of the gen. from the same vb.: facultas ad scribendum, instead of scribendi, Cic. Font. 6; facultas ad agendum, id. de Imp. Pomp. 1, 2: cf. Rudd. II. p. 245.
        4. d. In gramm.: nomina ad aliquid dicta, nouns used in relation to something, i. e. which derive their significance from their relation to another object: quae non possunt intellegi sola, ut pater, mater; jungunt enim sibi et illa propter quae intelleguntur, Charis. 129 P.; cf. Prisc. 580 ib.
      2. 2. With words denoting measure, weight, manner, model, rule, etc., both prop. and fig., according to, agreeably to, after (Gr. κατά, πρός): columnas ad perpendiculum exigere, Cic. Mur. 77: taleis ferreis ad certum pondus examinatis, Caes. B. G. 5, 12: facta sunt ad certam formam. Lucr. 2, 379: ad amussim non est numerus, Varr. 2, 1, 26: ad imaginem facere, Vulg. Gen. 1, 26: ad cursus lunae describit annum, Liv. 1, 19: omnia ad diem facta sunt, Caes. B. G. 2, 5: Id ad similitudinem panis efficiebant, id. B. C. 3, 48; Vulg. Gen. 1, 26; id. Jac. 3, 9: ad aequos flexus, at equal angles, Lucr. 4, 323: quasi ad tornum levantur, to or by the lathe, id. 4, 361: turres ad altitudiem valli, Caes. B. G. 5, 42; Liv. 39, 6: ad eandem crassitudinem structi, id. 44, 11: ad speciem cancellorum scenicorum, with the appearance of, like, Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 8: stagnum maris instar, circumseptum aedificiis ad urbium speciem, Suet. Ner. 31: lascivum pecus ludens ad cantum, Liv. Andron. Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 1: canere ad tibiam, Cic. Tusc. 4, 2: canere ad tibicinem, id. ib. 1, 2 (cf.: in numerum ludere, Verg. E. 6, 28; id. G. 4, 175): quod ad Aristophanis lucernam lucubravi, Varr. L. L. 5, § 9 Müll.: carmen castigare ad unguem, to perfection (v. unguis), Hor. A. P. 294: ad unguem factus homo, a perfect gentleman, id. S. 1, 5, 32 (cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 86): ad istorum normam sapientes, Cic. Lael. 5, 18; id. Mur. 3: Cyrus non ad historiae fidem scriptus, sed ad effigiem justi imperii, id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 8: exercemur in venando ad similitudinem bellicae disciplinae, id. N. D. 2, 64, 161: so, ad simulacrum, Liv. 40, 6: ad Punica ingenia, id. 21, 22: ad L. Crassi eloquentiam, Cic. Var. Fragm. 8: omnia fient ad verum, Juv. 6, 324: quid aut ad naturam aut contra sit, Cic. Fin. 1, 9, 30: ad hunc modum institutus est, id. Tusc. 2, 3; Caes. B. G. 2, 31; 3, 13: ad eundem istunc modum, Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 70: quem ad modum, q. v.: ad istam faciem est morbus, qui me macerat, of that kind, Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 73; id. Merc. 2, 3, 90; cf. 91: cujus ad arbitrium copia materiai cogitur, Lucr. 2, 281: ad eorum arbitrium et nutum totos se fingunt, to their will and pleasure, Cic. Or. 8, 24; id. Quint. 71: ad P. Lentuli auctoritatem Romā contendit, id. Rab. Post. 21: aliae sunt legati partes, aliae imperatoris: alter omnia agere ad praescriptum, alter libere ad summam rerum consulere debet, Caes. B. C. 3, 51: rebus ad voluntatem nostram fluentibus, Cic. Off. 1, 26: rem ad illorum libidinem judicārunt, id. Font. 36: ad vulgi opinionem, id. Off. 3, 21.
        So in later Lat. with instar: ad instar castrorum, Just. 36, 3, 2: scoparum, App. M. 9, p. 232: speculi, id. ib. 2, p. 118: ad hoc instar mundi, id. de Mundo, p. 72.
        Sometimes, but very rarely, ad is used absol. in this sense (so also very rarely κατά with acc., Xen. Hell. 2, 3; Luc. Dial. Deor. 8): convertier ad nos, as we (are turned), Lucr. 4, 317: ad navīs feratur, like ships, id. 4, 897 Munro.
        With noun: ad specus angustiac vallium, like caves, Caes. B. C. 3, 49.
      3. 3. With an object which is the cause or reason, in conformity to which, from which, or for which, any thing is or is done.
        1. a. The moving cause, according to, at, on, in consequence of: cetera pars animae paret et ad numen mentis momenque movetur, Lucr. 3, 144: ad horum preces in Boeotiam duxit, on their entreaty, Liv. 42, 67, 12: ad ea Caesar veniam ipsique et conjugi et fratribus tribuit, in consequence of or upon this, he, etc., Tac. Ann. 12, 37.
        2. b. The final cause, or the object, end, or aim, for the attainment of which any thing,
          1. (α) is done,
          2. (β) is designed, or,
          3. (γ) is fitted or adapted (very freq.), to, for, in order to.
          1. (α) Seque ad ludos jam inde abhinc exerceant, Pac. ap. Charis. p. 175 P. (Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 80): venimus coctum ad nuptias, in order to cook for the wedding, Plaut. Aul. 3, 2, 15: omnis ad perniciem instructa domus, id. Bacch. 3, 1, 6; cf. Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 41; Liv. 1, 54: cum fingis falsas causas ad discordiam, in order to produce dissension, Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 71: quantam fenestram ad nequitiam patefeceris, id. Heaut. 3, 1, 72: utrum ille, qui postulat legatum ad tantum bellum, quem velit, idoneus non est, qui impetret, cum ceteri ad expilandos socios diripiendasque provincias, quos voluerunt, legatos eduxerint, Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 19, 57: ego vitam quoad putabo tua interesse, aut ad spem servandam esse, retinebo, for hope, id. Q. Fr. 1, 4; id. Fam. 5, 17: haec juventutem, ubi familiares opes defecerant, ad facinora incendebant, Sall. C. 13, 4: ad speciem atque ad usurpationem vetustatis, Cic. Agr. 2, 12, 31; Suet. Caes. 67: paucis ad speciem tabernaculis relictis, for appearance, Caes. B. C. 2, 35; so id. ib. 2, 41; id. B. G. 1, 51.
          2. (β) Aut equos alere aut canes ad venandum. Ter. And. 1, 1, 30: ingenio egregie ad miseriam natus sum, id. Heaut. 3, 1, 11; (in the same sense: in rem, Hor. C. 1, 27, 1, and the dat., Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 6): ad cursum equum, ad arandum bovem, ad indagandum canem, Cic. Fin. 2, 13, 40: ad frena leones, Verg. A. 10, 253: delecto ad naves milite, marines, Liv. 22, 19 Weissenb.: servos ad remum, rowers, id. 34, 6; and: servos ad militiam emendos, id. 22, 61, 2: comparāsti ad lecticam homines, Cat. 10, 16: Lygdamus ad cyathos, Prop. 4, 8, 37; cf.: puer ad cyathum statuetur, Hor. C. 1, 29, 8.
          3. (γ) Quae oportet Signa esse ad salutem, omnia huic osse video, everything indicative of prosperity I see in him, Ter. And. 3, 2, 2: haec sunt ad virtutem omnia, id. Heaut. 1, 2, 33: causa ad objurgandum, id. And. 1, 1, 123: argumentum ad scribendum, Cic. Att. 9, 7 (in both examples instead of the gen. of gerund., cf. Rudd. II. p. 245): vinum murteum est ad alvum crudam, Cato R. R. 125: nulla res tantum ad dicendum proficit, quantum scriptio, Cic. Brut. 24: reliquis rebus, quae sunt ad incendia, Caes. B. C. 3, 101 al.
            So with the adjectives idoneus, utilis, aptus, instead of the dat.: homines ad hanc rem idoneos, Plaut. Poen. 3, 2, 6: calcei habiles et apti ad pedem, Cic. de Or. 1, 54, 231: orator aptus tamen ad dicendum, id. Tusc. 1, 3, 5: sus est ad vescendum hominibus apta, id. N. D. 2, 64, 160: homo ad nullam rem utilis, id. Off. 3, 6: ad segetes ingeniosus ager, Ov. F. 4, 684.
            (Upon the connection of ad with the gerund. v. Zumpt, § 666; Rudd. II. p. 261.)
      4. 4. Comparison (since that with which a thing is compared is considered as an object to which the thing compared is brought near for the sake of comparison), to, compared to or with, in comparison with: ad sapientiam hujus ille (Thales) nimius nugator fuit, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 25; id. Trin. 3, 2, 100: ne comparandus hic quidem ad illum’st, Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 14; 2, 3, 69: terra ad universi caeli complexum, compared with the whole extent of the heavens, Cic. Tusc. 1, 17, 40: homini non ad cetera Punica ingenia callido, Liv. 22, 22, 15: at nihil ad nostram hanc, nothing in comparison with, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 70; so Cic. Deiot. 8, 24; and id. de Or. 2, 6, 25.
    5. E. Adverbial phrases with ad.
      1. 1. Ad omnia, withal, to crown all: ingentem vim peditum equitumque venire: ex India elephantos: ad omnia tantum advehi auri, etc., Liv. 35, 32, 4.
      2. 2. Ad hoc and ad haec (in the historians, esp. from the time of Livy, and in authors after the Aug. per.), = praeterea, insuper, moreover, besides, in addition, ἐπί τούτοις: nam quicumque impudicus, adulter, ganeo, etc.: praeterea omnes undique parricidae, etc.: ad hoc, quos manus atque lingua perjurio aut sanguine civili alebat: postremo omnes, quos, etc., Sall. C. 14, 2 and 3: his opinionibus inflato animo, ad hoc vitio quoque ingenii vehemens, Liv. 6, 11, 6; 42, 1, 1; Tac. H. 1, 6; Suet. Aug. 22 al.
      3. 3. Ad id quod, beside that (very rare): ad id quod sua sponte satis conlectum animorum erat, indignitate etiam Romani accendebantur, Liv. 3, 62, 1; so 44, 37, 12.
      4. 4. Ad tempus.
        1. a. At a definite, fixed time, Cic. Att. 13, 45; Liv. 38, 25, 3.
        2. b. At a fit, appropriate time, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 54, § 141; Liv. 1, 7, 13.
        3. c. For some time, for a short time, Cic. Off. 1, 8, 27; id. Lael. 15, 53; Liv. 21, 25, 14.
        4. d. According to circumstances, Cic. Planc. 30, 74; id. Cael. 6, 13; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 9.
      5. 5. Ad praesens (for the most part only in post-Aug. writers).
        1. a. For the moment, for a short time, Cic. Fam. 12, 8; Plin. 8, 22, 34; Tac. A. 4, 21.
        2. b. At present, now, Tac. A. 16, 5; id. H. 1, 44.
          So, ad praesentiam, Tac. A. 11, 8.
      6. 6. Ad locum, on the spot: ut ad locum miles esset paratus, Liv. 27, 27, 2.
      7. 7. Ad verbum, word for word, literally, Cic. Fin. 1, 2, 4; id. de Or. 1, 34, 157; id. Ac. 2, 44, 135 al.
      8. 8. Ad summam.
        1. a. On the whole, generally, in general, Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3; id. Att. 14, 1; Suet. Aug. 71.
        2. b. In a word, in short, Cic. Off. 1, 41, 149; Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 106.
      9. 9. Ad extremum, ad ultimum, ad postremum.
        1. a. At the end, finally, at last.
          1. (α) Of place, at the extremity, extreme point, top, etc.: missile telum hastili abiegno et cetera tereti, praeterquam ad extremum, unde ferrum exstabat, Liv. 21, 8, 10.
          2. (β) Of time = τέλος δέ, at last, finally: ibi ad postremum cedit miles, Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 52; so id. Poen. 4, 2, 22; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 89; id. Phil. 13, 20, 45; Caes. B. G. 7, 53; Liv. 30, 15, 4 al.
          3. (γ) of order, finally, lastly, = denique: inventa componere; tum ornare oratione; post memoria sepire; ad extremum agere cum dignitate, Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142.
        2. b. In Liv., to the last degree, quite: improbus homo, sed non ad extremum perditus, 23, 2, 3; cf.: consilii scelerati, sed non ad ultimum dementis, id. 28, 28, 8.
      10. 10. Quem ad finem? To what limit? How far? Cic. Cat. 1, 1; id. Verr. 5, 75.
      11. 11. Quem ad modum, v. sub h. v.
        1. a. Ad (v. ab, ex, in, etc.) is not repeated like some other prepositions with interrog. and relative pronouns, after nouns or demonstrative pronouns: traducis cogitationes meas ad voluptates. Quas? corporis credo, Cic. Tusc. 3, 17, 37 (ubi v. Kühner).
        2. b. Ad is sometimes placed after its substantive: quam ad, Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 39: senatus, quos ad soleret, referendum censuit, Cic. N. D. 2, 4: ripam ad Araxis, Tac. Ann. 12, 51; or between subst. and adj.: augendam ad invidiam, id. ib. 12, 8.
        3. c. The compound adque for et ad (like exque, eque, and, poet., aque) is denied by Moser, Cic. Rep. 2, 15, p. 248, and he reads instead of ad humanitatem adque mansuetudinem of the MSS., hum. atque mans. But adque, in acc. with later usage, is restored by Hand in App. M. 10, p. 247, adque haec omnia oboediebam for atque; and in Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 9, utroque vorsum rectum’st ingenium meum, ad se adque illum, is now read, ad te atque ad illum (Fleck., Brix).
  2. II. In composition.
    1. A. Form. According to the usual orthography, the d of the ad remains unchanged before vowels, and before b, d, h, m, v: adbibo, adduco, adhibeo, admoveo, advenio; it is assimilated to c, f, g, l, n, p, r, s, t: accipio, affigo, aggero, allabor, annumero, appello, arripio, assumo, attineo; before g and s it sometimes disappears: agnosco, aspicio, asto: and before qu it passes into c: acquiro, acquiesco.
      But later philologists, supported by old inscriptions and good MSS., have mostly adopted the following forms: ad before j, h, b, d, f, m, n, q, v; ac before c, sometimes, but less well, before q; ag and also ad before g; a before gn, sp, sc, st; ad and also al before l; ad rather than an before n; ap and sometimes ad before p; ad and also ar before r; ad and also as before s; at and sometimes ad before t. In this work the old orthography has commonly been retained for the sake of convenient reference, but the better form in any case is indicated.
    2. B. Signif. In English up often denotes approach, and in many instances will give the force of ad as a prefix both in its local and in its figurative sense.
      1. 1. Local.
        1. a. To, toward: affero, accurro, accipio (to one’s self).
        2. b. At, by: astare, adesse.
        3. c. On, upon, against: accumbo, attero.
        4. d. Up (cf. de- = down, as in deicio, decĭdo): attollo, ascendo, adsurgo.
      2. 2. Fig.
        1. a. To: adjudico, adsentior.
        2. b. At or on: admiror, adludo.
        3. c. Denoting conformity to, or comparison with: affiguro, adaequo.
        4. d. Denoting addition, increase (cf. ab, de, and ex as prefixes to denote privation): addoceo, adposco.
        5. e. Hence, denoting intensity: adamo, adimpleo, aduro, and perhaps agnosco.
        6. f. Denoting the coming to an act or state, and hence commencement: addubito, addormio, adquiesco, adlubesco, advesperascit. See more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 74-134.