Lewis & Short

1. E, e, indecl. n. or (sc. littera)

  1. I. fem., a vowel corresponding to both the ε and the η of the Greeks, Ter. Maur. p. 2386 P.; Aus. Idyll. de Litter. Monos. 3 and 4; Mart. Cap. 3, § 235. Its sound varied; short e being sounded sometimes like Engl. e in men (so in pater, inter, etc.), sometimes more nearly like short i, as in Engl. pin (so in famelia, mereto, Menerva, etc.); whence, in the literary language, it passed, in a large class of words, into ĭ (familia, merito, etc.), though retained in the popular speech, and oft. in inscriptions. Long e also varied in sound, often resembling the diphthong ae, with which it is constantly confounded in MSS. and inscrr. (cf. raeda and reda; saeculum and seculum; ceteri and caeteri, etc.), and often approaching the sound of ī (v. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 324 sqq.). The short e in Latin is the least emphatic of all the vowels; hence, it not only took the place of other vowels in changes of words where the sounds became weakened, and in the vulgar language where the vowel sounds were less sharply distinguished, but frequently took the place of a final syllable ending in a consonant, and was sometimes, especially at the end of words, rejected.
        1. b. The transition of ă into ĕ (which took place especially before two consonants, whereas usually ă passed into ĭ in open syllables, v. art. A.) is seen in the compounds refello, commendo, ineptus, confercio, incestus, perpetior, etc. In some words the orthography is unsettled, as in the compounds of spargo, which are written sometimes aspergo, conspergo, dispergo, etc., and sometimes aspargo, conspargo, dispargo, etc.; as along with dispando the vulgar form dispenno also occurs. So in all the verbal reduplications, as cĕcidi, cĕcini, pĕperi, pĕpigi, tĕtigi; pĕperci, fĕfelli; dĕdi and stĕti (from cado, cano, pario, pango, tango, parco, fallo, DA and STA), whereas the vowels i, o, u remain unchanged in reduplication (bĭbi; mŏmordi; tŭtudi; for the anomalous forms in Gell. 7, 9, are certainly Graecized). As along with pĕpĭgi there also arose by syncope (in the Lat. lang. a predominating element in the formation of words) the perfect pēgi; so we may explain the perfect forms cēpi, fēci, jēci, frēgi, and ēgi, as syncopated from cĕcĭpi, fĕfĭci, jĕjĭci, frĕfĭgi, and ĕïgi (this last analogously with dēgo, from dēĭgo).
        2. c. For i stands ĕ
          1. (α) in the neuter forms of the adjectives in is (acre, agreste, facile, etc.).
          2. (β) In the nominative forms: aedes, apes, canes, etc. (for aedis, apis, canis, etc. v. h. vv.).
          3. (γ) In the dative forms: morte, jure dicundo, Dijove, Victore, etc. (cf. Neue, Formenl. 1, 192 sq.; and Quint. 1, 4, 17).
          4. (δ) In the nominatives in es, whose genitive has ĭtis.
            (ε) In the nominatives from stems ending in c, b, p, t, n, etc., as, pollex, caelebs, princeps, comes, flumen, from pollic-, caelib-, princip-, comit-, flumin-; and (ζ) In the old and partly vulgar manner of writing and pronouncing: CEPET, EXEMET, NAVEBOS (Colum. Rostr.), FVET, DEDET, TEMPESTATEBVS, TIBE (Epit. of the Scipios), COMPROMESISE (S. C. de Bacch.), MENERVA, MAGESTER, HERE, VEA, VELLA, etc. (Quint. 1, 4, 8, and 17; Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 14; cf. Cic. de Or. 3, 12, 46). In the earliest period (before Plautus) ĕ was found in many words in which ĭ afterwards took its place; as: semul, fuet, mereto, tempestatebus, etc.
            (η) It is prob. too that the abl. ĕ of the third declension proceeded from ī (or id); cf. Neue, Formenl. 1, 239 sqq.; Corss. Ausspr. 2, 241 sq.
        3. d. It less freq. happens that o and u pass over into ĕ, as vello, ocellus, verto, vertex, vester, compared with vulsi, oculus, vorto, vortex, voster: generis from genus, societas from socius, etc.; and even for long u we have ĕ in dejĕro and pejĕro, from jūro.
        4. e. The stem vowel o is weakened to ĕ in the vocative of nouns in us of the second declension; ĕ also represents o in the perf. and in pass. forms, such as scripsere, conabare, conabere, from scripserunt, conabaris, conaberis; in the future forms attinge, dice, facie, recipie, from attingam, dicam, faciam, recipiam (see under dico init.); in the forms mage, pote, from magis, potis, etc.; it is inserted for euphony in the nom. of many nouns and adjj whose stems end in r preceded by a mute, as ager, aper, liber, aeger, ruber, sacer, etc.
        5. f. The vowel e is suppressed in the imperatives dic, duc, fac, fer, in the anteclass infinitive biber (from bibere); in the vocative of the second declension of nouns in ius, as Gai, geni, fili, canteri, columbari, mantuari, volturi, mi (cf. Freund in Jahn’s Neue Jahrbüch, 1835, vol. 13, p. 148 sq.), in enclitic particles often, as: hic, haec, hoc, for hice, etc.; so, illaec, sic, nunc, nec, ac, etc.: viden, potin: quin, for quine, etc., and as an initial in the present forms of the verb esse (sum, sumus, sunt; sim, etc., for esum, esumus, esunt, esim, etc.). But the forms facul, simul, Bacchanal, etc., are not apocopated. Even a radical ĕ sometimes drops out when a prefix or suffix is taken; so, gigno, for gigeno: malignus, for maligenus: gnatus, for genatus.
        6. g. The long e interchanges most freq. with the diphthongs ae and oe (q. v.); yet it sometimes also took the place of ā, as in anhēlo, from hālo, and in the rustic bēlo, for bālo; and likewise of ī, as LEBER, SPECA, AMECVS, for līber, spīca, amīcus (Quint. Inst. l. l.; Varr. R. R. 1, 48, 2; Paul. ex Fest. p. 15, 6 Müll.); and in words borrowed from the Greek, as chorēa, Darēus, along with Academīa, Alexandrīa; see the letter I.
        7. h. As an abbreviation, E (mostly in connection with other abbreviations) signifies egregius, equus, eques, erexit, evocatus, etc.; e. g. E. M. V. = egregiae memoriae vir; E. Q. R. = eques Romanus; EE. QQ. RR. = equites Romani; E. P. = equo publico; E. M. D. S. P. E. = e monitu de sua pecunia erexit, etc.
  2. 2.
    1. e. praep., out of, from, v. ex.

ex or ē (ex always before vowels, and elsewh. more freq. than e; e. g. in Cic. Rep. e occurs 19 times, but ex 61 times, before consonants—but no rule can be given for the usage; cf., e. g., ex and e together: qui ex corporum vinculis tamquam e carcere evolaverunt, Cic. Rep. 6, 14. But certain expressions have almost constantly the same form, as ex parte, ex sententia, ex senatus consulto, ex lege, ex tempore, etc.; but e regione, e re nata, e vestigio, e medio, and e republica used adverbially; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, 756 sq.), praep. with abl. [kindr. with Gr. ἐκ, ἐξ], denotes out from the interior of a thing, in opposition to in (cf. ab and de init.), out of, from.

  1. I. In space.
    1. A. Prop.: interea e portu nostra navis solvitur, Ubi portu exiimus, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 54: quam (sphaeram) M. Marcelli avus captis Syracusis ex urbe locupletissima atque ornatissima sustulisset, cum aliud nihil ex tanta praeda domum suam deportavisset, Cic. Rep. 1, 14: influxit non tenuis quidam e Graecia rivulus in hanc urbem, id. ib. 2, 19: visam, ecquae advenerit In portum ex Epheso navis mercatoria, Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 2; cf. id. ib. 3, 2, 5; 3, 6, 32 al.: magno de flumine malim quam ex hoc fonticulo tantundem sumere, Hor. S. 1, 1, 56; cf.: nec vos de paupere mensa Dona nec e puris spernite fictilibus, Tib. 1, 1, 38: clanculum ex aedibus me edidi foras, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 9; so freq. with verbs compounded with ex; also with verbs compounded with ab and de, v. abeo, abscedo, amoveo, aveho, etc.; decedo, deduco, defero, deicio, etc.
      1. 2. In a downward direction, from, down from, from off: ex spelunca saxum in crura ejus incidisse, Cic. Fat. 3, 6; cf. Liv. 35, 21: picis e caelo demissum flumen, Lucr. 6, 257: equestribus proeliis saepe ex equis desiliunt, Caes. B. G. 4, 2, 3; cf.: cecidisse ex equo dicitur, Cic. Clu. 62 fin.: e curru trahitur, id. Rep. 2, 41: e curru desilit, Ov. A. A. 1, 559 et saep., v. cado, decido, decurro, deduco, delabor, elabor, etc.
      2. 3. In an upward direction, from, above: collis paululum ex planitie editus, Caes. B. G. 2, 8, 3: globum terrae eminentem e mari, Cic. Tusc. 1, 28; and trop.: consilia erigendae ex tam gravi casu rei publicae, Liv. 6, 2.
    2. B. Transf.
      1. 1. To indicate the country, and, in gen., the place from or out of which any person or thing comes, from: ex Aethiopia est usque haec, Ter. Eun. 3, 2, 18: quod erat ex eodem municipio, Cic. Clu. 17, 49; cf. id. ib. 5, 11.
        Freq. without a verb: Philocrates ex Alide, Plaut. Capt. 3, 2, 10: ex Aethiopia ancillula, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 85 Ruhnk.: negotiator ex Africa, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 5: Epicurei e Graecia, id. N. D. 1, 21, 58: Q. Junius ex Hispania quidam, Caes. B. G. 5, 27: ex India elephanti, Liv. 35, 32: civis Romanus e conventu Panhormitano, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 54 Zumpt; cf. id. ib. 2, 5, 59 fin.: meretrix e proxumo, Plaut. As. 1, 1, 38; cf. id. Aul. 2, 4, 11: puer ex aula (sc. regis barbari), Hor. C. 1, 29, 7: ex spelunca saxum, Cic. Fat. 3, 6: saxum ex capitolio, Liv. 35, 21, 6: ex equo cadere, Cic. Clu. 32, 175; cf. id. Fat. 3, 6; Auct. B. Hisp. 15 et saep.
      2. 2. To indicate the place from which any thing is done or takes place, from, down from: ibi tum derepente ex alto in altum despexit mare, Enn. ap. Non. 518, 6 (for which: a summo caelo despicere, Ov. A. A. 2, 87; and: de vertice montis despicere, id. M. 11, 503); cf.: T. Labienusex loco superiore conspicatus, etc., Caes. B. G. 2, 26, 4: ex qua (villa) jam audieram fremitum clientium meorum, Cic. Fam. 7, 18, 3: ex hoc ipso loco permulta contra legem eam verba fecisti, id. de Imp. Pomp. 17, 52; so id. ib. 8 fin.; cf.: judices aut e plano aut e quaesitoris tribunali admonebat, Suet. Tib. 33: ex equo, ex prora, ex puppi pugnare, Plin. 7, 56, 57, § 202 and 209; cf. Caes. B. G. 2, 27, 3: ex vinculis causam dicere, id. ib. 1, 4, 1; Liv. 29, 19.
        Hence the adverbial expressions, ex adverso, ex diverso, ex contrario, e regione, ex parte, e vestigio, etc.; v. the words adversus, diversus, etc.
        Also, ex itinere, during or on a journey, on the march, without halting, Cic. Fam. 3, 9; Sall. C. 34, 2; Liv. 35, 24; Caes. B. G. 2, 6, 1; 3, 21, 2; id. B. C. 1, 24, 4; Sall. J. 56, 3 al.; cf. also: ex fuga, during the flight, Caes. B. G. 6, 35, 6; id. B. C. 3, 95; 96 fin.; Sall. J. 54, 4 Kritz.; Liv. 6, 29; 28, 23 al.
  2. II. In time.
    1. A. From a certain point of time, i. e. immediately after, directly after, after (in this sense more freq. than ab): Cotta ex consulatu est profectus in Galliam, Cic. Brut. 92, 318; so, ex consulatu, Liv. 4, 31 Drak.; 40, 1 fin.; 22, 49; 27, 34; Vell. 2, 33, 1 al.: ex praetura, Cic. Leg. 1, 20, 53; id. Mur. 7, 15; Caes. B. C. 1, 22, 4; 1, 31, 2: ex dictatura, Liv. 10, 5 fin.: ex eo magistratu, Vell. 2, 31 et saep.; cf.: Agrippa ex Asia (pro consule eam provinciam annuo imperio tenuerat) Moesiae praepositus est, Tac. H. 3, 46 fin.: statim e somno lavantur, id. G. 22: tanta repente vilitas annonae ex summa inopia et caritate rei frumentariae consecuta est, Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 15, 44; cf. Liv. 21, 39: ex aliquo graviore actu personam deponere, Quint. 6, 2, 35: mulier ex partu si, etc., Cels. 2, 8: ex magnis rupibus nactus planitiem, Caes. B. C. 1, 70, 3; cf.: ex maximo bello tantum otium totae insulae conciliavit, ut, etc., Nop. Timol. 3, 2; and: ex magna desperatione tandem saluti redditus, Just. 12, 10, 1 et saep.: ex quo obses Romae fuit, since he was a hostage in Rome, Liv. 40, 5 fin.
      So the phrase, aliud ex alio, one thing after another: me quotidie aliud ex alio impedit, Cic. Fam. 9, 19 fin.; Cic. Leg. 1, 4, 14 (cf. also, alius, D.): aliam rem ex alia cogitare, Ter. Eun. 4, 2, 3: alia ex aliis iniquiora postulando, Liv. 4, 2.
      So, too, diem ex die exspectabam, one day after another, from day to day, Cic. Att. 7, 26 fin.; cf.: diem ex die ducere, Caes. B. G. 1, 16, 5 (v. dies, I. A. b.).
      1. 2. With names of office or calling, to denote one who has completed his term of office, or has relinquished his vocation. So in class. Lat. very dub.; for the passage, Caes. B. C. 1, 46, 4, belongs more correctly under III. B. It is, however, very common in post-class. Lat., esp. in inscriptions—ex consule, ex comite, ex duce, ex equite, ex praefecto, etc.—an ex-consul, etc. (for which, without good MS. authority, the nominatives exconsul, excomes, exdux, etc., are sometimes assumed, in analogy with proconsul, and subvillicus; cf. Schneid. Gram. 1, p. 562, note, and the authors there cited): vir excelsus ex quaestore et ex consule Tribonianus, Cod. Just. 1, 17, 2, § 9; cf.: Pupienus et Balbinus, ambo ex consulibus, Capitol. Gord. 22: duo ante ipsam aram a Gallicano ex consulibus et Maecenate ex ducibus interempti sunt, id. ib.: mandabat Domitiano, ex comite largitionum, praefecto, ut, etc., Amm. 14, 7, 9: Serenianus ex duce, id. 14, 7, 7: INLVSTRIS EX PRAEFECTO praeTORIO ET EX PRAEFECTO VRbis, Inscr. Orell. 2355 al., v. Inscr. Orell. in Indice, p. 525.
        And of a period of life: quem si Constans Imperator olim ex adulto jamque maturum audiret, etc., i. e. who had outgrown the period of youth, and was now a man, Amm. 16, 7.
    2. B. From and after a given time, from … onward, from, since (cf. ab, II. A. 2.): bonus volo jam ex hoc die esse, Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 10: itaque ex eo tempore res esse in vadimonium coepit, Cic. Quint. 5 fin.: nec vero usquam discedebam, nec a republica deiciebam oculos, ex eo die, quo, etc., id. Phil. 1, 1: ex aeterno tempore, id. Fin. 1, 6, 17: ex hoc die, id. Rep. 1, 16: motum ex Metello consule civicum tractas, from the consulship of Metellus, Hor. C. 2, 1, 1: C. Pompeius Diogenes ex Kalendis Juliis cenaculum locat, Petr. 38, 10; so usually in forms of hiring; cf. Garaton. Cic. Phil. 2, 39, 100: ex ea die ad hanc diem, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 12 fin.: memoria tenent, me ex Kalendis Januariis ad hanc horam invigilasse rei publicae, id. Phil. 14, 7, 20.
      Esp.: ex quo (sc. tempore), since: octavus annus est, ex quo, etc., Tac. Agr. 33; id. A. 14, 53: sextus decimus dies agitur, ex quo, id. H. 1, 29: sextus mensis est, ex quo, Curt. 10, 6, 9; Hor. Ep. 11, 5; so, ex eo, Tac. A. 12, 7; Suet. Caes. 22: ex illo, Ov. F. 5, 670; Stat. Silv. 1, 2, 81.
    3. C. Less freq. in specifying a future date (after which something is to be done), from, after: Romae vereor ne ex Kal. Jan. magni tumultus sint, Cic. Fam. 16, 9, 3: hunc judicem ex Kal. Jan. non habemusex Kal. Jan. non judicabunt, id. Verr. 1, 10: ex Idibus Mart. … ex Idibus Mai., id. Att. 5, 21, 9.
  3. III. In other relations, and in gen. where a going out or forth, a coming or springing out of any thing is conceivable.
    1. A. With verbs of taking out, or, in gen., of taking, receiving, deriving (both physically and mentally; so of perceiving, comprehending, inquiring, learning, hoping, etc.), away from, from, out of, of: solem e mundo tollere videntur, qui amicitiam e vita tollunt, Cic. Lael. 13, 47: ex omni populo deligendi potestas, id. Agr. 2, 9, 23: agro ex hoste capto, Liv. 41, 14, 3: cui cum liceret majores ex otio fructus capere, Cic. Rep. 1, 4: ex populo Romano bona accipere, Sall. J. 102: majorem laetitiam ex desiderio bonorum percepimus, quam ex laetitia improborum dolorem, Cic. Rep. 1, 4: quaesierat ex me Scipio, id. ib. 1, 13: ex te requirunt, id. ib. 2, 38: de quo studeo ex te audire, quid sentias, id. ib. 1, 11 fin.; 1, 30; 1, 46; 2, 38; cf.: intellexi ex tuis litteris te ex Turannio audisse, etc., id. Att. 6, 9, 3: ex eo cum ab ineunte ejus aetate bene speravissem, id. Fam. 13, 16 et saep.; cf.: ex aliqua re aliquid nominare, id. N. D. 2, 20, 51: vocare, Tac. G. 2, 4; cf. id. ib. 4, 55; Sall. J. 5, 4.
    2. B. In specifying a multitude from which something is taken, or of which it forms a part, out of, of: qui ex civitate in senatum, ex senatu in hoc consilium delecti estis, Cic. Rosc. Am. 3 fin.: e vectoribus sorte ductus, id. Rep. 1, 34: ecquis est ex tanto populo, qui? etc., id. Rab. Post. 17: homo ex numero disertorum postulabat, ut, etc., id. de Or. 1, 37, 168: Q. Fulgentius, ex primo hastato (sc. ordine) legionis XIV., i. e. a soldier of the first division of hastati of the 14th legion, Caes. B. C. 1, 46; v. hastatus: e barbaris ipsis nulli erant maritimi, Cic. Rep. 2, 4: unus ex illis decemviris, id. ib. 2, 37: ex omnibus seculis vix tria aut quatuor nominantur paria amicorum, id. Lael. 4, 15: aliquis ex vobis, id. Cael. 3, 7; id. Fam. 13, 1 fin.: id enim ei ex ovo videbatur aurum declarasse; reliquum, argentum, this of the egg, id. Div. 2, 65: quo e collegio (sc. decemvirorum), id. Rep. 2, 36: virgines ex sacerdotio Vestae, Flor. 1, 13, 12: alia ex hoc quaestu, Ter. Hec. 5, 1, 29 Ruhnk.; cf.: fuit eodem ex studio vir eruditus apud patres nostros, Cic. Mur. 36; Ov. Am. 2, 5, 54; Sen. Ben. 3, 9; id. Ep. 52, 3: qui sibi detulerat ex latronibus suis principatum, Cic. Phil. 2, 3: est tibi ex his, qui assunt, bella copia, id. Rep. 2, 40: Batavi non multum ex ripa, sed insulam Rheni amnis colunt, Tac. G. 29: acerrimum autem ex omnibus nostris sensibus esse sensum videndi, Cic. de Or. 2, 87, 357: ex tribus istis modis rerum publicarum velim scire quod optimum judices, id. Rep. 1, 30; cf. id. ib. 1, 35 et saep.
      1. 2. Sometimes a circumlocution for the subject. gen., of (cf. de): has (turres) altitudo puppium ex barbaris navibus superabat, Caes. B. G. 3, 14, 4: album ex ovo cum rosa mixtum, Cels. 4, 20: ex fraxino frondes, ex leguminibus paleae, Col. 7, 3, 21 sq.
    3. C. To indicate the material of which any thing is made or consists, of: fenestrae e viminibus factae, Varr. R. R. 3, 9, 6; cf.: statua ex aere facta, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 21; and: ex eo auro buculam curasse faciendam, id. Div. 1, 24: substramen e palea, Varr. R. R. 3, 10, 4: pocula ex auro, vas vinarium ex una gemma pergrandi, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 27: monilia e gemmis, Suet. Calig. 56: farina ex faba, Cels. 5, 28: potiones ex absinthio, id. ib. et saep.: Ennius (i. e. statua ejus) constitutus ex marmore, Cic. Arch. 9 fin.; cf. id. Ac. 2, 31, 100: (homo) qui ex animo constet et corpore caduco et infirmo, id. N. D. 1, 35, 98: natura concreta ex pluribus naturis, id. ib. 3, 14; id. Rep. 1, 45; id. Ac. 1, 2, 6: cum Epicuro autem hoc est plus negotii, quod e duplici genere voluptatis conjunctus est, id. Fin. 2, 14, 44 et saep.
    4. D. To denote technically the material, out of, i. e. with which any thing to eat or drink, etc., is mixed or prepared (esp. freq. of medical preparations): resinam ex melle Aegyptiam, Plaut. Merc. 1, 2, 28: quo pacto ex jure hesterno panem atrum vorent, Ter. Eun. 5, 4, 17: bibat jejunus ex aqua castoreum, Cels. 3, 23: aqua ex lauro decocta, id. 4, 2; cf.: farina tritici ex aceto cocta, Plin. 22, 25, 57, § 120: pullum hirundinis servatum ex sale, Cels. 4, 4: nuclei pinei ex melle, panis vel elota alica ex aqua mulsa (danda est), id. 4, 7 et saep.
      So of the mixing of colors or flavors: bacae e viridi rubentes, Plin. 15, 30, 39, § 127: frutex ramosus, bacis e nigro rufis, id. ib. § 132: id solum e rubro lacteum traditur, id. 12, 14, 30, § 52: e viridi pallens, id. 37, 8, 33, § 110: apes ex aureolo variae, Col. 9, 3, 2: sucus ex austero dulcis, Plin. 13, 9, 18, § 62; 21, 8, 26, § 50: ex dulci acre, id. 11, 15, 15, § 39; cf. trop.: erat totus ex fraude et mendacio factus, Cic. Clu. 26.
    5. E. To indicate the cause or reason of any thing, from, through, by, by reason of, on account of: cum esset ex aere alieno commota civitas, Cic. Rep. 2, 33: ex doctrina nobilis et clarus, id. Rab. Post. 9, 23: ex vulnere aeger, id. Rep. 2, 21; cf.: ex renibus laborare, id. Tusc. 2, 25: ex gravitate loci vulgari morbos, Liv. 25, 26: ex vino vacillantes, hesterna ex potatione oscitantes, Quint. 8, 33, 66: gravida e Pamphilo est, Ter. And. 1, 3, 11: credontibi hoc, nunc peperisse hanc e Pamphilo? id. ib. 3, 2, 17: ex se nati, Cic. Rep. 1, 35: ex quodam conceptus, id. ib. 2, 21: ex nimia potentia principum oritur interitus principum, id. ib. 1, 44: ex hac maxima libertate tyrannis gignitur, id. ib. et saep.: ex te duplex nos afficit sollicitudo, Cic. Brut. 97, 332; cf.: quoniam tum ex me doluisti, nunc ut duplicetur tuum ex me gaudium, praestabo, id. Fam. 16, 21, 3: in spem victoriae adductus ex opportunitate loci, Sall. J. 48, 2: veritus ex anni tempore et inopia aquae, ne siti conficeretur exercitus, id. ib. 50, 1 et saep.: ex Transalpinis gentibus triumphare, Cic. Phil. 8, 6, 18; id. Off. 2, 8, 28; cf. id. Fam. 3, 10, 1: gens Fabia saepe ex opulentissima Etrusca civitate victoriam tulit, Liv. 2, 50: ex tam propinquis stativis parum tuta frumentatio erat, i. e. on account of the proximity of the two camps, Liv. 31, 36: qua ex causa cum bellum Romanis Sabini intulissent, Cic. Rep. 2, 7: hic mihi (credo equidem ex hoc, quod eramus locuti) Africanus se ostendit, id. ib. 6, 10: quod ex eo sciri potest, quia, etc., id. Tusc. 1, 18 fin.; cf. id. Leg. 1, 15, 43: causafuit ex eo, quod, etc., id. Phil. 6, 1: ex eo fieri, ut, etc., id. Lael. 13, 46: ex quo fit, ut, etc., id. Rep. 1, 43: e quo efficitur, non ut, etc., id. Fin. 2, 5, 15 et saep.
      Sometimes between two substantives without a verb: non minor ex aqua postea quam ab hostibus clades, Flor. 4, 10, 8: ex nausea vomitus, Cels. 4, 5: ex hac clade atrox ira, Liv. 2, 51, 6: metus ex imperatore, contemptio ex barbaris, Tac. A. 11, 20: ex legato timor, id. Agr. 16 et saep.
      1. 2. In partic., to indicate that from which any thing derives its name, from, after, on account of: cui postea Africano cognomen ex virtute fuit, Sall. J. 5, 4; cf. Flor. 2, 6, 11: cui (sc. Tarquinio) cognomen Superbo ex moribus datum, id. 1, 7, 1: nomen ex vitio positum, Ov. F. 2, 601: quarum ex disparibus motionibus magnum annum mathematici nominaverunt, Cic. N. D. 2, 20; id. Leg. 1, 8; cf. id. Tusc. 4, 12; Plin. 11, 37, 45, § 123: holosteon sine duritia est, herba ex adverso appellata a Graecis, id. 27, 10, 65, § 91: quam urbem e suo nomine Romam jussit nominari, Cic. Rep. 2, 7: e nomine (nominibus), id. ib. 2, 20; Tac. A. 4, 55; id. G. 2; Just. 15, 4, 8; 20, 5, 9 et saep.
  4. F. To indicate a transition, i. e. a change, alteration, from one state or condition to another, from, out of: si possum tranquillum facere ex irato mihi, Plaut. Cist. 3, 21: fierent juvenes subito ex infantibus parvis, Lucr. 1, 186: dii ex hominibus facti, Cic. Rep. 2, 10: ut exsistat ex rege dominus, ex optimatibus factio, ex populo turba et confusio, id. ib. 1, 45: nihil est tam miserabile quam ex beato miser, id. Part. 17; cf.: ex exsule consul, id. Manil. 4, 46: ex perpetuo annuum placuit, ex singulari duplex, Flor. 1, 9, 2: tua virtute nobis Romanos ex amicis amicissimos fecisti, Sall. J. 10: ex alto sapore excitati, Curt. 7, 11, 18.
  5. G. Ex (e) re, ex usu or ex injuria, to or for the advantage or injury of any one: ex tua re non est, ut ego emoriar, Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 102; 104; cf. Ter. Phorm. 5, 7, 76: Cervius haec inter vicinus garrit aniles Ex re fabellas, i. e. fitting, suitable, pertinent (= pro commodo, quae cum re proposita conveniant), Hor. S. 2, 6, 78: aliquid facere bene et e re publica, for the good, the safety of the state, Cic. Phil. 10, 11, 25: e (not ex) re publica, id. ib. 3, 12, 30; 8, 4, 13; id. de Or. 2, 28, 124; id. Fam. 13, 8, 2; Liv. 23, 24; Suet. Caes. 19 et saep.: exque re publica, Cic. Phil. 3, 15, 38; 5, 13, 36: non ex usu nostro est, Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 60; Ter. Hec. 4, 3, 10; Caes. B. G. 1, 30, 2; 1, 50 fin.; 5, 6 fin. al.; cf.: ex utilitate, Plin. Pan. 67, 4; Tac. A. 15, 43: ex nullius injuria, Liv. 45, 44, 11.
  6. H. To designate the measure or rule, according to, after, in conformity with which any thing is done: (majores) primum jurare EX SVI ANIMI SENTENTIA quemque voluerunt, Cic. Ac. 2, 47 fin. (cf. Beier, Cic. Off. 3, 29, 108, and the references): ex omnium sententia constitutum est, etc., id. Clu. 63, 177; cf.: ex senatus sententia, id. Fam. 12, 4: ex collegii sententia, Liv. 4, 53: ex amicorum sententia, id. 40, 29: ex consilii sententia, id. 45, 29 et saep.; cf. also: ex sententia, i. q. ex voluntate, according to one’s wish, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 96: Ter. Hec. 5, 4, 32; Cic. Fam. 12, 10, 2; id. Att. 5, 21 al.; and, in a like sense: ex mea sententia, Plaut. Men. 2, 2, 1; id. Merc. 2, 3, 36: ex senatus consulto, Cic. Rep. 3, 18; Sall. C. 42 fin.: ex edicto, ex decreto, Cic. Fam. 13, 56 fin.; id. Quint. 8, 30: ex lege, id. Div. in Caecil. 5, 19; id. Clu. 37, 103; id. Inv. 1, 38, 68: ex jure, Enn. ap. Gell. 20, 10, 4 (Ann. v. 276 ed. Vahl.); Varr. L. L. 6, § 64 Müll.; Cic. Mur. 12, 26; id. de Or. 1, 10, 41: ex foedere, Liv. 1, 23 et saep.: hunccine erat aequum ex illius more, an illum ex hujus vivere? Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 29; so, ex more, Sall. J. 61, 3; Verg. A. 5, 244; 8, 186; Ov. M. 14, 156; 15, 593; Plin. Ep. 3, 18; Flor. 4, 2, 79 al.; cf.: ex consuetudine, Cic. Clu. 13, 38; Caes. B. G. 1, 52, 4; 4, 32, 1; Sall. J. 71, 4; Quint. 2, 7, 1 al.: quod esse volunt e virtute, id est honeste vivere, Cic. Fin. 2, 11, 34: ex sua libidine moderantur, Ter. Heaut. 2, 1, 4; cf. Sall. C. 8, 1: ut magis ex animo rogare nihil possim, Cic. Fam. 13, 8, 3: eorum ex ingenio ingenium horum probant, Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 42; cf. Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 118; Balb. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 7, A.: leges ex utilitate communi, non ex scriptione, quae in litteris est, interpretari, Cic. Inv. 1, 38; cf. id. Lael. 6, 21: nemo enim illum ex trunco corporis spectabat, sed ex artificio comico aestimabat, id. Rosc. Com. 10, 28; cf. Sall. C. 10, 5; Caes. B. G. 3, 20, 1; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 4, 2 al.: ex tuis verbis meum futurum corium pulcrum praedicas, Plaut. Ep. 5, 1, 19; cf. Cic. Fam. 7, 17; id. Att. 1, 3: nunc quae scribo, scribo ex opinione hominum atque fama, id. Fam. 12, 4 fin.: scripsit Tiberio, non ut profugus aut supplex, sed ex memoria prioris fortunae, Tac. A. 2, 63: quamquam haec quidem res non solum ex domestica est ratione; attingit etiam bellicam, Cic. Off. 1, 22, 76; cf. id. Quint. 11; 15 et saep.
    E re rata, v. ratus.
  1. I. To form adverbial expressions, such as: ex aequo, ex commodo, ex contrario, ex composito, ex confesso, ex destinato, ex diverso, ex facili, etc., ex affluenti, ex continenti; ex improviso, ex inopinato, etc., v. the words aequus, commodus, etc.
    Note: Ex placed after its noun: variis ex, Lucr. 2, 791: terris ex, id. 6, 788: quibus e sumus uniter apti, id. 3, 839; 5, 949.
    E joined with que: que sacra quercu, Verg. E. 7, 13.
  2. IV. In composition, ex (cf. dis) before vowels and h, and before c, p, q, t (exagito, exeo, exigo, exoro, exuro, exhaurio; excedo, expello, exquiro, extraho); ef (sometimes ec) before f (effero, effluo, effringo; also in good MSS. ecfero, ecfari, ecfodio), elsewhere e (eblandior, educo, egredior, eicio, eligo, emitto, enitor, evado, eveho). A few exceptions are found, viz., in ex: epoto and epotus as well as expotus, and escendo as well as exscensio; in e: exbibo as well as ebibo; exballisto, exbola; exdorsuo; exfututa as well as effutuo; exfibulo; exlex, etc. After ex in compounds s is often elided in MSS. and edd. Both forms are correct, but the best usage and analogy favor the retaining of the s; so, exsaevio, exsanguis, exscensio, exscindo, exscribo, exsculpo, exseco, exsecror, exsequiae, exsequor, exsero, exsicco, exsilio, exsilium, exsisto, exsolvo, exsomnis, exsorbeo, exsors, exspecto, exspes, exspiro, exspolio, exspuo, exsterno, exstimulo, exstinguo, exstirpo, exsto, exstruo, exsudo, exsugo, exsul, exsulto, exsupero, exsurgo, exsuscito, and some others, with their derivv.; cf. Ribbeck, Prol. Verg. p. 445 sq. Only in escendere and escensio is the elision of x before s sustained by preponderant usage; cf. Neue, Formenl. 2, p. 766.
    1. B. Signification.
      1. 1. Primarily and most freq. of place, out or forth: exeo, elabor, educo, evado, etc.; and in an upward direction: emineo, effervesco, effero, erigo, exsurgo, exsulto, extollo, everto, etc.
        Hence also, trop., out of (a former nature), as in effeminare, qs. to change out of his own nature into that of a woman: effero, are, to render wild; thus ex comes to denote privation or negation, Engl. un-: exanimare, excusare, enodare, exonerare, effrenare, egelidus, I., elinguis, elumbis, etc.
      2. 2. Throughout, to the end: effervesco, effero, elugeo; so in the neuter verbs which in composition (esp. since the Aug. per.) become active: egredior, enavigo, eno, enitor, excedo, etc.
        Hence, thoroughly, utterly, completely: elaudare, emori, enecare, evastare, evincere (but eminari and eminatio are false readings for minari and minatio; q. v.); and hence a simple enhancing of the principal idea: edurus, efferus, elamentabilis, egelidus, exacerbo, exaugeo, excolo, edisco, elaboro, etc. In many compounds, however, of post-Aug. and especially of post-class. Latinity this force of ex is no longer distinct; so in appellations of color: exalbidus, exaluminatus, etc.; so in exabusus, exambire, exancillatus, etc. Vid. Hand Turs. II. pp. 613-662.