Lewis & Short

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I. A, a, indecl. n. (sometimes joined with

  1. I. littera), the first letter of the Latin alphabet, corresponding to the a, α of the other Indo-. European languages: A primum est: hinc incipiam, et quae nomina ab hoc sunt, Lucil. ap. Terent. Scaur. p. 2255 P.: sus rostro si humi A litteram impresserit, Cic. Div. 1, 13, 23: ne in A quidem atque S litteras exire temere masculina Graeca nomina recto casu patiebantur, Quint. 1, 5, 61.
  2. II. The sound of the A is short or long in every part of the word; as, ăb, păter, ită; ā, māter, frustrā. During a short period (between about 620 and 670 A. U. C. = from 134 to 84 B.C.) long a was written aa, probably first by the poet L. Attius, in the manner of the Oscan language; so we find in Latin inscriptions: AA. CETEREIS (i.e.a ceteris), CALAASI, FAATO, HAACE, MAARCIVM, PAAPVS, PAASTORES, VAARVS; and in Greek writing, MAAPKOΨ ΨIOΣ MAAPKEAAOΣ, KOINTON MAAPKION (like Osc. aasas = Lat. āra, Osc. Paapi = Lat. Pāpius, Osc. Paakul = Lat. Pāculus, Pācullus, Pācuvius, etc.), v. Ritschl, Monum. Epigr. p. 28 sq., and cf. Mommsen, Unterital. Dialekte, p. 210 sq. (The Umbrian language has gone a step farther, and written long a by aha, as Aharna, Naharcom, trahaf, etc.; cf. Aufrecht and Kirchhoff, Umbrische Sprachdenkm. p. 76 sq.) Vid. also the letters E and U.
  3. III. In etymological and grammatical formation of words, short a very often (sometimes also long a) is changed into other vowels.
    1. A. Short a is changed,
      1. 1. , into long a
        1. a. In consequence of the suppression of the following consonants at the end or in the middle of the word: ŭb, ā; vădis, vūs; ăg-, ăg-men, exāmen; tăg-, contūmino; căd-, cāsus. Hence also in the abl. sing. of the first decl., and in the particles derived from it. in consequence of the suppression of the original ablat. end. -d: PRAEDAD (Col. Rostr.), praedā; SENTENTIAD (S. C. de Bacch.), sententiā; EXTBAD (ib.), extrā; SVPRAD (ib.), suprā.
        2. b. In perfect forms: scăb-o, scābi; căveo, cūvi; făv-eo, fāvi; păv-eo, pāvi (for scăbui, căvui, făvui, păvui).
        3. c. In other forms: ăgo, ambūges; păc-, păc-iscor, pâcis (pâx); săg-ax, sūgus, sāga; măc-er, mâcero; făg- (φαγεῖν), fūgus. (Contrary to analogy, ă remains short in dănunt, from dă-in-unt, V. Ritschl, l.l.p. 17.)
      2. 2. Short a is changed into é or ē
        1. a. Into é. (a) Most frequently in the second part of compounds, particularly before two consonants: facio, confectus; jacio, conjectus; rapio, dereptus; dăm-, damno, condemno; fāl-, fallo, fefelli; măn-, mando, commendo; scando, ascendo; ăp-, aptus, ineptus; ăr-, ars, iners, sollers; ăn-, annus, perennis; căpio, auceps; căput, triceps; ăgo, remex; jăcio, objex. And thus in Plautus, according to the best MSS., dispenno, dispessus from pando, compectus from compăciscor, anteceptus from capio (on the other hand, in Vergil, according to the best MS., aspurgo, attractare, deiractare, kept their a unchanged).
          1. (β) Sometimes ă is changed into ĕ also before one consonant (but in this case it is usually changed into ĭ; v. infra, 3. a. a.): grădior, ingrĕdior; pătior, perpĕtior; părio, repĕrio; păro, vitupĕro; ăp-, coepi (i. e. co-ŭpi); căno, tubicĕn, tibicĕn; in the reduplicated carcĕr (from carcar) farfŏrus (written also farfārus); and so, according to the better MSS., aequipĕro from păro, and defĕtigo from fătigo.
          2. (γ) In words taken from the Greek: τάλαντον, talŏntum; φάλαρα, phalŏrae; σίσαρον, sisŏr (but, according to the best MSS., cumŭra from καμάρα, not camŏra).
        2. b. Short a is changed to ē in some perfect forms: ăgo, ēgi; fūcio, féci; jăci, jĕci; frag-, frango, frēgi; căpio, cēpi, and păg-, pango, pēgi (together with pepĭgi and panxi, v. pango).
      3. 3. Short a is changed to ĭ, a (most frequently in the second part of compounds)
          1. (α) before one consonant: ăgo, abĭgo; făcio, confĭcio; cădo, concĭdo; sălio, assĭlio; răpio, abrĭpio; păter, Juppĭter (in Umbrian lang. unchanged, Jupater), Marspĭter; Diespĭter, Opĭter; rătus, irrĭtus; ămicus, inìmicus (but ŭ remains unchanged in adŭmo, impătiens, and in some compounds of a later period of Roman literature, as praejacio, calefacio, etc.).
          2. (β) Sometimes also before two consonants (where it is usually changed into ĕ; v. supra, 2. α. β.): tăg-, tango, contingo; păg-, pango, compingo (unchanged in some compounds, as peragro, desacro, depango, obcanto, etc.).
        1. b. ă is changed into ĭ in the reduplicated perfect forms: cădo, cecĭdi; căno, cecĭni; tăg-, tango, tetĭgi; păg-, pango, pepĭgi.
        2. c. Likewise in some roots which have ă: păg-, pignus; străg- (strangulo, στράγγω), stringo.
        3. d. In words taken from the Greek: μηχανή, machĭna; πατάνη, patĭna; βυκάνη, bucĭna; τρυτάνη, trutĭna; βαλανεῖον, balĭneum; Κατάνα, Catĭna (written also Catana); ‘Ακράγας, Agrĭgentum.
      4. 4. Short a is changed into short or long o.
        1. a. Into ŏ: scăbo, scobs; păr, pars, portio; dăm-, dŏmo; Fabii, Fŏvii (v. Paul. ex Fest. p. 87); μάρμαρον, marmŏr; Mars, redupl. Marmar, Marmor (Carm. Fratr. Arv.).
        2. b. Into ō: dă-, dōnum, dōs; ăc-, ăcuo, ōcior (v. this art.).
      5. 5. Short a is changed into ŭ
        1. a. In the second part of compounds, particularly before l, p, and b: calco, inculco; salsus, insulsus; salto, exsulto; capio, occŭpo; răpio, surrupio and surruptus (also written surripio and surreptus); tăberna, contŭbernium; —before other consonants: quătio, conoŭtio; as, decussis; Mars, Mamŭrius, Mamŭralia; and once also condumnari (Tab. Bant. lin. 8, immediately followed by condemnatus, v. Klenze, Philol. Abhandl. tab. I., and Mommsen, Unterital. Dial. p. 149).
        2. b. In words of Greek origin: ‘Εκάβη, Hecŭba; σκυτάλη, scutŭla; κραιπάλη, crapŭla; πάσσαλος, pessŭlus; ᾶφλαστον, aplustre; θρίαμβος, triumphus.
        3. c. ă is perhaps changed into ŭ in ulciscor, compared with alc-, ὐλέξω (arc-, arceo).
    2. B. Long a is sometimes changed into ē or ō.
      1. 1. Into é: hālo, anhélo; fās-, féstus, profēstus; nām, némpe.
      2. 2. Into ō: gnā-, gnārus, ignārus, ignōro. (But in general long a remains unchanged in composition: lābor, delūbor; gnàvus, ignūnus; fàma, infūmis.)
  4. IV. Contrary to the mode of changing Greek α into Latin e, i, o, u (v. supra), Latin a has sometimes taken the place of other Greek vowels in words borrowed from the Greek, as: λόγχη, lancea; κύλιξ, călix; Γανυμηὀης, Caiāmitus.
  5. V. The repugnance of the Latin Language to the Greek combined vowels αο has caused the translocation of them in Alumento for Δαομέὸων (Paul. ex Fest. p. 18 Müll.).
    Greek α is suppressed in Hercules from ‘Ηρακλῆς (probably in consequence of the inserted u; in late Latin we find Heracla and Heracula, cf. Ritschl, in Rhein. Mus. Neue Folge, vol. 12, p. 108).
  6. VI. Latin ă was early combined with the vowels i and u, forming the diphthongs ai and au; by changing the i into e, the diphthong ai soon became ae. So we find in the oldest inscriptions: AIDE, AIDLLIS, AIQVOM, GNAIVOD, HAICE, DVELONAI, TABELAI, DATAI, etc., which soon gave place to aedem, aedilis, aequom, Gnaeo, haec, Bellonae, tabellae, datae, etc. (the Col. Rostr. has PRAESENTE, PRAEDAD, and the S. C. de Bacch. AEDEM. The triphthong aei, found in CONQVAEISIVEI (?), is very rare; Miliar. Popil. lin. 11, v. Ritschl, l. l. p. 21). In some poets the old gen. sing. of the first decl. (-ai) is preserved, but is dissyllabic, āī. So in Ennius: Albūī Longūī, terrūī frugiferāī, frondosāī, lunāī, viāī; in Vergil: aulāī, aurāī, aquāī, pictāī; in Ausonius: herāī.
    1. B. ue as well as au are changed into other vowels.
      1. 1. The sound of ae, e, and oe being very similar, these vowels are often interchanged in the best MSS., So we find caerimonia and cerimonia, caepa and cēpa, saeoulum and séculum; scaena and scēna; caelum and coelum, haedus and hoedus, macstus and moestus; cena, coena, and caena, etc.
      2. 2. In composition and reduplications ae becomes í: aequus, iníquus; quaero, inquíro; laedo, illído; taedet, pertisum (noticed by Cic.); aestumo, exístumo; cuedo, cecídi, concído, homicida.
      3. 3. ae is also changed into í in a Latinized word of Greek origin: Ἀχαιός (Ἀχαιϝόσ), Achíous.
      4. 4. The diphthong au is often changed to ó and ú (the latter particularly in compounds): caudex, códex; Claudius, Clodius; lautus, lotus; plaustrum, plōstrum; plaudo, plōdo, explōdo; paululum, pōlulum; faux, suffōco; si audes (acc. to Cic. or acc. to others, si audies), sódes, etc.; claudo, inclūdo; causa, accūso. Hence in some words a regular gradation of au, o, u is found: claudo, clōdicare, clúdo; raudus, ródus, rúdus; caupo, cópa, cūpa; naugae, nōgae (both forms in the MSS. of Plautus), nūgae; fraustra, frode, frude (in MSS. of Vergil); cf. Ritschl, in Wintercatalog 1854-55, and O. Ribbeck, in Jahn’s Neue Jahrb. vol. 77, p. 181 sq.
        The change of au into and ō appears only in audio, (oboedio) obēdio.
      5. 5. Au sometimes takes the place of av-: faveo, fautum, favitor, fautor; navis, navita, nauta; avis, auceps, auspex. So Latin aut corresponds to Sanscr. avo. (whence -vā, Lat. -ve), Osc. avti, Umbr. ute, ote; and so the Lat. preposition ab, through av, becomes au in the words aufero and aufugio (prop. av-fero, av-fugio, for ab-fero, ab-fugio). Vid. the art. ab init.
  7. VII. In primitive roots, which have their kindred forms in the sister-languages of the Latin, the original a, still found in the Sanscrit, is in Latin either preserved or more frequently changed into other vowels.
    1. A. Original a preserved: Sanscr. mātri, Lat. màter; S. bhrātri, L. fràter; S. nāsā, L. nàsus and nàris; S. ap, L. aqua; S. apa, L. ab; S. nāma, L. năm; S. ćatur, L. quattuor (in Greek changed: τἑτταρες); S. capūla, L. căput (in Greek changed: κεφαλή, etc.).
    2. B. Original a is changed into other Latin vowels
      1. 1. Into e: S. ad, L. ed (ĕdo); S. as, L. es (esse); S. pat, L. pet (peto); S. pād, L. pĕd (pès); S. dant, L. dent (dens); S. ǵan, L. gen (gigno); S. mā, L. mè-tior; S. saptan, L. septem; S. daśan, L. decem; S. śata, L. centum; S. aham, L. ŏgo; S. pāra, L. per; S. paśu, L. pŏcus; S. asva, L. ŏquus, etc.
      2. 2. Into i: S. an-, a- (neg. part.), L. in-: S. ana (prep.), L. in; S. antar, L. inter; S. sama, L. similis; S. agni, L. ignis; S. abhra, L. imber; S. panéa, L. quinque, etc.
      3. 3. Into o: S. avi, L. ŏvi (ovis); S. vać, L. vōc (voco); S. pra, L. pro; S. , L. po (pŏtum); S. nāma, L. nōmen; S. api, L. ŏb; S. navan, L. nŏvem; S. nava, L. nŏvus, etc.
      4. 4. Into u: S. marmara, L. murmur.
      5. 5. Into ai, ae: S. prati, L. (prai) prae; S. śaśpa, L. caespes.
      6. 6. Into different vowels in the different derivatives: S. mā, L. mê-tior, mŏdus; S. praó, L. prŏcor, prŏcus; S. vah, L. vĕho, via.
    3. C. Sometimes the Latin has preserved the original a, while even the Sanscrit has changed it: Lat. pa-, pater, Sanscr. pd, pitri.
      1. 2. As an abbreviation A. usually denotes the praenomen Aulus; A. A. = Auli duo, Inscr. Orell. 1530 (but A. A. = Aquae Aponi, the modern Abano, ib. 1643 sq.; 2620; 3011). The three directors of the mint were designated by III. VIRI A. A. A. F. F. (i. e. auro, argento, aeri flando, feriundo), ib. 569; 2242; 2379; 3134 al.; so also A. A. A., ib. 3441 (cf. Cic. Fam. 7, 13 fin., and v. the art. Triumviri); A. D. A. agris dandis adsignandis, and A. I. A. agris judicandis adsignandis; A. O. amico optimo; A. P. a populo or aediliciae potestatis; A. P. R. aerario populi Romani.
        Upon the voting tablets in judicial trials A. denoted absoluo; hence A. is called littera salutaris, Cic. Mil. 6, 15; v. littera. In the Roman Comitia A. (= antiquo) denoted the rejection of the point in question; v. antiquo. In Cicero’s Tusculan Disputations the A. designated one of the disputants = adulescens or auditor, opp. to M. for magister or Marcus (Cicero); but it is to be remarked that the letters A and M do not occur in the best MSS. of this treatise; cf. edd. ad Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 9.
        In dates A. D. = ante diem; v. ante; A. U. C. = anno urbis conditae; A. P. R. C. anno post Romam conditam.

3. a, prep. = ab, v. ab.

4. ā, interj. = ah, v. ah.

Ăărōn (Ăārōn, Prud. Psych. 884), indecl. or ōnis, m., [??] Aaron, brother of Moses, and first high-priest of the Hebrews, Vulg. Exod. 4, 14; 6, 25 al.

ăb, ā, abs, prep. with abl. This IndoEuropean particle (Sanscr. apa or ava, Etr. av, Gr. ὐπό, Goth. af, Old Germ. aba, New Germ. ab, Engl. of, off) has in Latin the following forms: ap, af, ab (av), au-, ā, ă; aps, abs, as-. The existence of the oldest form, ap, is proved by the oldest and best MSS. analogous to the prep. apud, the Sanscr. api, and Gr. ἐπί, and by the weakened form af, which, by the rule of historical grammar and the nature of the Latin letter f, can be derived only from ap, not from ab. The form af, weakened from ap, also very soon became obsolete. There are but five examples of it in inscriptions, at the end of the sixth and in the course of the seventh century B. C., viz.: AF VOBEIS, Inscr. Orell. 3114; AF MVRO, ib. 6601; AF CAPVA, ib. 3308; AF SOLO, ib. 589; AF LYCO, ib. 3036 (afuolunt = avolant, Paul. ex Fest. p. 26 Múll., is only a conjecture). In the time of Cicero this form was regarded as archaic, and only here and there used in account-books; v. Cic. Or. 47, 158 (where the correct reading is af, not abs or ab), and cf. Ritschl, Monum. Epigr. p. 7 sq.
The second form of this preposition, changed from ap, was ab, which has become the principal form and the one most generally used through all periods—and indeed the only oue used before all vowels and h; here and there also before some consonants, particularly l, n, r, and s; rarely before c, j, d, t; and almost never before the labials p, b, f, v, or before m, such examples as ab Massiliensibus, Caes. B. C. 1, 35, being of the most rare occurrence.
By changing the b of ab through v into u, the form au originated, which was in use only in the two compounds aufero and aufugio for abfero, ab-fugio; aufuisse for afuisse, in Cod. Medic. of Tac. A. 12, 17, is altogether unusual. Finally, by dropping the b of ab, and lengthening the a, ab was changed into á, which form, together with ab, predominated through all periods of the Latin language, and took its place before all consonants in the later years of Cicero, and after him almoet exclusively.
By dropping the b without lengthening the a, ab occurs in the form ă- in the two compounds ă-bîo and ă-pĕrio, q. v.
On the other hand, instead of reducing ap to a and ă, a strengthened collateral form, aps, was made by adding to ap the letter s (also used in particles, as in ex, mox, vix). From the first, aps was used only before the letters c, q, t, and was very soon changed into abs (as ap into ab): abs chorago, Plaut. Pers. 1, 3, 79 (159 Ritschl): abs quivis, Ter. Ad. 2, 3, 1: abs terra, Cato, R. R. 51; and in compounds: aps-cessero, Plaut. Trin. 3, 1, 24 (625 R.); id. ib. 3, 2, 84 (710 R): abs-condo, abs-que, abs-tineo, etc. The use of abs was confined almost exclusively to the combination abs te during the whole ante-classic period, and with Cicero till about the year 700 A. U. C. (= B. C. 54). After that time Cicero evidently hesitates between abs te and a te, but during the last five or six years of his life a te became predominant in all his writings, even in his letters; consequently abs te appears but rarely in later authors, as in Liv. 10, 19, 8; 26, 15, 12; and who, perhaps, also used abs conscendentibus, id. 28, 37, 2; v. Drakenb. ad. h. l. (Weissenb. ab).
Finally abs, in consequence of the following p, lost its b, and became ds- in the three compounds aspello, as-porto, and as-pernor (for asspernor); v. these words.
The late Lat. verb abbrevio may stand for adbrevio, the d of ad being assimilated to the following b.The fundamental signification of ab is departure from some fixed point (opp. to ad. which denotes motion to a point).

  1. I. In space, and,
  2. II. Fig., in time and other relations, in which the idea of departure from some point, as from source and origin, is included; Engl. from, away from, out of; down from; since, after; by, at, in, on, etc.
  1. I. Lit., in space: ab classe ad urbem tendunt, Att. ap. Non. 495, 22 (Trag. Rel. p. 177 Rib.): Caesar maturat ab urbe proficisci, Caes. B. G. 1, 7: fuga ab urbe turpissima, Cic. Att. 7, 21: ducite ab urbe domum, ducite Daphnim, Verg. E. 8, 68. Cicero himself gives the difference between ab and ex thus: si qui mihi praesto fuerit cum armatis hominibus extra meum fundum et me introire prohibuerit, non ex eo, sed ab (from, away from) eo loco me dejecerit. … Unde dejecti Galli? A Capitolio. Unde, qui cum Graccho fucrunt? Ex Capitolio, etc., Cic. Caecin. 30, 87; cf. Diom. p. 408 P., and a similar distinction between ad and in under ad.
    Ellipt.: Diogenes Alexandro roganti, ut diceret, si quid opus esset: Nunc quidem paululum, inquit, a sole, a little out of the sun, Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 92.
    Often joined with usque: illam (mulierem) usque a mari supero Romam proficisci, all the way from, Cic. Clu. 68, 192; v. usque, I.
    And with ad, to denote the space passed over: siderum genus ab ortu ad occasum commeant, fromto, Cic. N. D. 2, 19 init.; cf. abin: venti a laevo latere in dextrum, ut sol, ambiunt, Plin. 2, 47, 48, § 128.
        1. b. Sometimes with names of cities and small islands, or with domus (instead of the usual abl.), partie., in militnry and nautieal language, to denote the marching of soldiers, the setting out of a flcet, or the departure of the inhabitants from some place: oppidum ab Aenea fugiente a Trojā conditum, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 33: quemadmodum (Caesar) a Gergovia discederet, Caes. B. G. 7, 43 fin.; so id. ib. 7, 80 fin.; Sall. J. 61; 82; 91; Liv. 2, 33, 6 al.; cf.: ab Arimino M. Antonium cum cohortibus quinque Arretium mittit, Caes. B. C. 1, 11 fin.; and: protinus a Corfinio in Siciliam miserat, id. ib. 1, 25, 2: profecti a domo, Liv. 40, 33, 2; of setting sail: cum exercitus vestri numquam a Brundisio nisi hieme summā transmiserint, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 12, 32; so id. Fam. 15, 3, 2; Caes. B. C. 3, 23; 3, 24 fin.: classe quā advecti ab domo fuerant, Liv. 8, 22, 6; of citizens: interim ab Roma legatos venisse nuntiatum est, Liv. 21, 9, 3; cf.: legati ab Orico ad M. Valerium praetorem venerunt, id. 24, 40, 2.
        2. c. Sometimes with names of persons or with pronouns: pestem abige a me, Enn. ap. Cic. Ac. 2, 28, 89 (Trag. v. 50 Vahl.): Quasi ad adulescentem a patre ex Seleucia veniat, Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 41; cf.: libertus a Fuflis cum litteris ad Hermippum venit, Cic. Fl. 20, 47: Nigidium a Domitio Capuam venisse, id. Att. 7, 24: cum a vobis discessero, id. Sen. 22: multa merces tibi defluat ab Jove Neptunoque, Hor. C. 1, 28, 29 al. So often of a person instead of his house, lodging, etc.: videat forte hic te a patre aliquis exiens, from the father, i. e. from his house, Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 6: so a fratre, id. Phorm. 5, 1, 5: a Pontio, Cic. Att. 5, 3 fin.: ab , Ter. And. 1, 3, 21; and so often: a me, a nobis, a se, etc., from my, our, his house, etc., Plaut. Stich. 5, 1, 7; Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 50; Cic. Att. 4, 9, 1 al.
    1. B. Transf., without the idea of motion. To designate separation or distance, with the verbs abesse, distare, etc., and with the particles longe, procul, prope, etc.
      1. 1. Of separation: ego te afuisse tam diu a nobis dolui, Cic. Fam. 2, 1, 2: abesse a domo paulisper maluit, id. Verr. 2, 4, 18, § 39: tum Brutus ab Romā aberat, Sall. C. 40, 5: absint lacerti ab stabulis, Verg. G. 4, 14.
      2. 2. Of distance: quot milia fundus suus abesset ab urbe, Cic. Caecin. 10, 28; cf.: nos in castra properabamus, quae aberant bidui, id. Att. 5, 16 fin.; and: hic locus aequo fere spatio ab castris Ariovisti et Caesaris aberat, Caes. B. G. 1, 43, 1: terrae ab hujusce terrae, quam nos incolimus, continuatione distantes, Cic. N. D. 2, 66, 164: non amplius pedum milibus duobus ab castris castra distabant, Caes. B. C. 1, 82, 3; cf. id. lb. 1, 3, 103.
        With adverbs: annos multos longinque ab domo bellum gerentes, Enn. ap. Non. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 103 Vahl.): cum domus patris a foro longe abesset, Cic. Cael. 7, 18 fin.; cf.: qui fontes a quibusdam praesidiis aberant longius, Caes. B. C. 3, 49, 5: quae procul erant a conspectu imperii, Cic. Agr. 2, 32, 87; cf.: procul a castris hostes in collibus constiterunt, Caes. B. G. 5, 17, 1; and: tu procul a patria Alpinas nives vides, Verg. E. 10, 46 (procul often also with simple abl.; v. procul): cum esset in Italia bellum tam prope a Sicilia, tamen in Sicilia non fuit, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6; cf.: tu apud socrum tuam prope a meis aedibus sedebas, id. Pis. 11, 26; and: tam prope ab domo detineri, id. Verr. 2, 2, 3, § 6.
        So in Cæsar and Livy, with numerals to designate the measure of the distance: onerariae naves, quae ex eo loco ab milibus passuum octo vento tenebatur, eight miles distant, Caes. B. G. 4, 22, 4; and without mentioning the terminus a quo: ad castra contenderunt, et ab milibus passunm minus duobus castra posuerunt, less than two miles off or distant, id. ib. 2, 7, 3; so id. ib. 2, 5, 32; 6, 7, 3; id. B. C. 1, 65; Liv. 38, 20, 2 (for which: duo milia fere et quingentos passus ab hoste posuerunt castra, id. 37, 38, 5).
      3. 3. To denote the side or direction from which an object is viewed in its local relations, = a parte, at, on, in: utrum hacin feriam an ab laevā latus? Enn. ap. Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (Trag. v. 38 Vahl.); cf.: picus et cornix ab laevā, corvos, parra ab dexterā consuadent, Plaut. As. 2, 1, 12: clamore ab ea parte audito. on this side, Caes. B. G. 3, 26, 4: Gallia Celtica attingit ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum, on the side of the Sequani, i. e. their country, id. ib. 1, 1, 5: pleraque Alpium ab Italiā sicut breviora ita arrectiora sunt, on the Italian side, Liv. 21, 35, 11: non eadem diligentiā ab decumunā portā castra munita, at the main entrance, Caes. B. G. 3, 25 fin.: erat a septentrionibus collis, on the north, id. ib. 7, 83, 2; so, ab oriente, a meridie, ab occasu; a fronte, a latere, a tergo, etc. (v. these words).
  2. II. Fig.
    1. A. In time.
      1. 1. From a point of time, without reference to the period subsequently elapsed. After: Exul ab octava Marius bibit, Juv. 1,40: mulieres jam ab re divin[adot ] adparebunt domi, immediately after the sucrifice, Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 4: Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum cornu profectus, Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1: ab hac contione legati missi sunt, immediately after, Liv. 24, 22, 6; cf. id. 28, 33, 1; 40, 47, 8; 40, 49, 1 al.: ab eo magistratu, after this office, Sall. J. 63, 5: a summā spe novissima exspectabat, after the greatest hope, Tac. A. 6, 50 fin.
        Strengthened by the adverbs primum, confestim, statim, protinus, or the adj. recens, immediately after, soon after: ut primum a tuo digressu Romam veni, Cic. Att. 1, 5, 4; so Suet. Tib. 68: confestim a proelio expugnatis hostium castris, Liv. 30, 36, 1: statim a funere, Suet. Caes. 85; and followed by statim: ab itinere statim, id. ib. 60: protinus ab adoptione, Vell. 2, 104, 3: Homerus qui recens ab illorum actate fuit, soon after their time, Cic. N. D. 3, 5; so Varr. R. R. 2, 8, 2; Verg. A. 6, 450 al. (v. also primum, confestim, etc.).
        Sometimes with the name of a person or place, instead of an action: ibi mihi tuae litterae binae redditae sunt tertio abs te die, i. e. after their departure from you, Cic. Att. 5, 3, 1: in Italiam perventum est quinto mense a Carthagine Nov[adot ], i. e. after leaving (= postquam a Carthagine profecti sunt), Liv. 21, 38, 1: secundo Punico (bello) Scipionis classis XL. die a securi navigavit, i. e. after its having been built, Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192.
        Hence the poct. expression: ab his, after this (cf. ὲκ τούτων), i. e. after these words, hereupon, Ov. M. 3, 273; 4, 329; 8, 612; 9, 764.
      2. 2. With reference to a subsequent period. From, since, after: ab horā tertiā bibebatur, from the third hour, Cic. Phil. 2, 41: infinito ex tempore, non ut antea, ab Sullā et Pompeio consulibus, since the consulship of, id. Agr. 2, 21, 56: vixit ab omni aeternitate, from all eternity, id. Div. 1, 51, 115: cum quo a condiscipulatu vivebat conjunctissime, Nep. Att. 5, 3: in Lycia semper a terrae motu XL. dies serenos esse, after an earthquake, Plin. 2, 96, 98, § 211 al.: centesima lux est haec ab interitu P. Clodii, since the death of, Cic. Mil. 35, 98; cf.: cujus a morte quintus hic et tricesimus annus est, id. Sen. 6, 19; and: ab incenso Capitolio illum esse vigesumiun annum, since, Sall. C. 47, 2: diebus triginta, a quâ die materia caesa est, Caes. B. C. 1, 36.
        Sometimes joined with usque and inde: quod augures omnes usque ab Romulo decreverunt, since the time of, Cic. Vat. 8, 20: jam inde ab infelici pugnà ceciderant animi, from the very beginning of, Liv. 2, 65 fin.
        Hence the adverbial expressions ab initio, a principio, a primo, at, in, or from the beginning, at first; v. initium, principium, primus. Likewise ab integro, anew, afresh; v. integer.
        Abad, from (a time) … to: ab horà octavā ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus, Cic. Att. 7, 8, 4; cf.: cum ab horā septimā ad vesperum pugnatum sit, Caes. B. G. 1, 26, 2; and: a quo tempore ad vos consules anni sunt septingenti octoginta unus, Vell. 1, 8, 4; and so in Plautus strengthened by usque: pugnata pugnast usque a mane ad vesperum, from morning to evening, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 97; id. Most. 3, 1, 3; 3, 2, 80.
        Rarely ab … in: Romani ab sole orto in multum diei stetere in acie, fromtill late in the day, Liv. 27, 2, 9; so Col. 2, 10, 17; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 2, 103, 106, § 229; 4, 12, 26, § 89.
        1. b. Particularly with nouns denoting a time of life: qui homo cum animo inde ab ineunte aetate depugnat suo, from an early age, from early youth, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 24; so Cic. Off. 2, 13, 44 al.: mihi magna cum co jam inde a pueritiā fuit semper famillaritas, Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 9; so, a pueritiā, Cic. Tusc. 2, 11, 27 fin.; id. Fam. 5, 8, 4: jam inde ab adulescentiā, Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 16: ab adulescentiā, Cic. Rep. 2, 1: jam a primā adulescentiā, id. Fam. 1, 9, 23: ab ineunte adulescentiā, id. ib. 13, 21, 1; cf. followed by ad: usque ad hanc aetatem ab incunte adulescentiā, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 20: a primis temporibus aetatis, Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 3: a teneris unguiculis, from childhood, id. ib. 1, 6, 2: usque a togà purā, id. Att. 7, 8, 5: jam inde ab incunabulis, Liv. 4, 36, 5: a primā lanugine, Suet. Oth. 12: viridi ab aevo, Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 17 al.; rarely of animals: ab infantiā, Plin. 10, 63, 83, § 182.
          Instead of the nom. abstr. very often (like the Greek ὲκ παιὸων, etc.) with concrete substantives: a pucro, ab adulescente, a parvis, etc., from childhood, etc.: qui olim a puero parvulo mihi paedagogus fuerat, Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 90; so, a pausillo puero, id. Stich. 1, 3, 21: a puero, Cic. Ac. 2, 36, 115; id. Fam. 13, 16, 4 (twice) al.: a pueris, Cic. Tusc. 1, 24, 57; id. de Or. 1, 1, 2 al.: ab adulescente, id. Quint. 3, 12: ab infante, Col. 1, 8, 2: a parvā virgine, Cat. 66, 26 al.
          Likewise and in the same sense with adject.: a parvo, from a little child, or childhood, Liv. 1, 39, 6 fin.; cf.: a parvis, Ter. And. 3, 3, 7; Cic. Leg. 2, 4, 9: a parvulo, Ter. And. 1, 1, 8; id. Ad. 1, 1, 23; cf.: ab parvulis, Caes. B. G. 6, 21, 3: ab tenero, Col. 5, 6, 20; and rarely of animals: (vacca) a bimā aut trimā fructum ferre incipit, Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 13.
    2. B. In other relations in which the idea of going forth, proceeding, from something is included.
      1. 1. In gen. to denote departure, separation, deterring, avoiding, intermitting, etc., or distance, difference, etc., of inanimate or abstract things. From: jus atque aecum se a malis spernit procul, Enn. ap. Non. 399, 10 (Trag. v. 224 Vahl.): suspitionem et culpam ut ab se segregent, Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 42: qui discessum animi a corpore putent esse mortem, Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 18: hic ab artificio suo non recessit, id. ib. 1, 10, 20 al.: quod si exquiratur usque ab stirpe auctoritas, Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 180: condicionem quam ab te peto, id. ib. 2, 4, 87; cf.: mercedem gloriae flagitas ab iis, quorum, etc., Cic. Tusc. 1, 15, 34: si quid ab illo acceperis, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 90: quae (i. e. antiquitas) quo propius aberat ab ortu et divinā progenie, Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 26: ab defensione desistere, Caes. B. C. 2, 12, 4: ne quod tempus ab opere intermitteretur, id. B. G. 7, 24, 2: ut homines adulescentīs a dicendi studio deterream, Cic. de Or. 1, 25, 117, etc.
        Of distance (in order, rank, mind, or feeling): qui quartus ab Arcesilā fuit, the fourth in succession from, Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 46: tu nunc eris alter ab illo, next after him, Verg. E. 5, 49; cf.: Aiax, heros ab Achille secundus, next in rank to, Hor. S. 2, 3, 193: quid hoc ab illo differt, from, Cic. Caecin. 14, 39; cf.: hominum vita tantum distat a victu et cultu bestiarum, id. Off. 2, 4, 15; and: discrepare ab aequitate sapientiam, id. Rep. 3, 9 fin. (v. the verbs differo, disto, discrepo, dissideo, dissentio, etc.): quae non aliena esse ducerem a dignitate, Cic. Fam. 4, 7: alieno a te animo fuit, id. Deiot. 9, 24 (v. alienus).
        So the expression ab re (qs. aside from the matter, profit; cf. the opposite, in rem), contrary to one’s profit, to a loss, disadvantageous (so in the affirmative very rare and only ante-class.): subdole ab re consulit, Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 12; cf. id. Capt. 2, 2, 88; more frequently and class. (but not with Cicero) in the negative, non, haud, ab re, not without advantage or profit, not useless or unprofitable, adcantageous: haut est ab re aucupis, Plaut. As. 1, 3, 71: non ab re esse Quinctii visum est, Liv. 35, 32, 6; so Plin. 27, 8, 35; 31, 3, 26; Suet. Aug. 94; id. Dom. 11; Gell. 18, 14 fin.; App. Dogm. Plat. 3, p. 31, 22 al. (but in Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 44, ab re means with respect to the money matter).
      2. 2. In partic.
        1. a. To denote an agent from whom an action proceeds, or by whom a thing is done or takes place. By, and in archaic and solemn style, of. So most frequently with pass. or intrans. verbs with pass. signif., when the active object is or is considered as a living being: Laudari me abs te, a laudato viro, Naev. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 31, 67: injuriā abs te afficior, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 24, 38: a patre deductus ad Scaevolam, Cic. Lael. 1, 1: ut tamquam a praesentibus coram haberi sermo videretur, id. ib. 1, 3: disputata ab eo, id. ib. 1, 4 al.: illa (i. e. numerorum ac vocum vis) maxime a Graeciā vetere celebrata, id. de Or. 3, 51, 197: ita generati a naturā sumus, id. Off. 1, 29, 103; cf.: pars mundi damnata a rerum naturā, Plin. 4, 12, 26, § 88: niagna adhibita cura est a providentiā deorum, Cic. N. D. 2, 51 al.
          With intrans. verbs: quae (i. e. anima) calescit ab eo spiritu, is warmed by this breath, Cic. N. D. 2, 55, 138; cf. Ov. M. 1, 417: (mare) quā a sole collucet, Cic. Ac. 2, 105: salvebis a meo Cicerone, i. e. young Cicero sends his compliments to you, id. Att. 6, 2 fin.: a quibus (Atheniensibus) erat profectus, i. e. by whose command, Nep. Milt. 2, 3: ne vir ab hoste cadat, Ov. H. 9, 36 al.
          A substantive or adjective often takes the place of the verb (so with de, q. v.): levior est plaga ab amico quam a debitore, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 7; cf.: a bestiis ictus, morsus, impetus, id. Off. 2, 6, 19: si calor est a sole, id. N. D. 2, 52: ex iis a te verbis (for a te scriptis), id. Att. 16, 7, 5: metu poenae a Romanis, Liv. 32, 23, 9: bellum ingens a Volscis et Aequis, id. 3, 22, 2: ad exsolvendam fldem a consule, id. 27, 5, 6.
          With an adj.: lassus ab equo indomito, Hor. S. 2, 2, 10: Murus ab ingenic notior ille tuo, Prop. 5, 1, 126: tempus a nostris triste malis, time made sad by our misfortunes, Ov. Tr. 4, 3, 36.
          Different from per: vulgo occidebantur: per quos et a quibus? by whom and upon whose orders? Cic. Rosc. Am. 29, 80 (cf. id. ib. 34, 97: cujus consilio occisus sit, invenio; cujus manu sit percussus, non laboro); so, ab hoc destitutus per Thrasybulum (i. e. Thrasybulo auctore), Nep. Alc. 5, 4.
          Ambiguity sometimes arises from the fact that the verb in the pass. would require ab if used in the active: si postulatur a populo, if the people demand it, Cic. Off. 2, 17, 58, might also mean, if it is required of the people; on the contrary: quod ab eo (Lucullo) laus imperatoria non admodum exspectabatur, not since he did not expect military renown, but since they did not expect military renown from him, Cic. Ac. 2, 1, 2, and so often; cf. Rudd. II. p. 213. (The use of the active dative, or dative of the agent, instead of ab with the pass., is well known, Zumpt, § 419. It is very seldom found in prose writers of the golden age of Roman liter.; with Cic. sometimes joined with the participles auditus, cognitus, constitutus, perspectus, provisus, susceptus; cf. Halm ad Cic. Imp. Pomp. 24, 71, and ad ejusdem, Cat. 1, 7 fin.; but freq. at a later period; e. g. in Pliny, in Books 2-4 of H. N., more than twenty times; and likewise in Tacitus seventeen times. Vid. the passages in Nipperd. ad Tac. A. 2, 49.) Far more unusual is the simple abl. in the designation of persons: deseror conjuge, Ov. H. 12, 161; so id. ib. 5, 75; id. M. 1, 747; Verg. A. 1, 274; Hor. C. 2, 4, 9; 1, 6, 2; and in prose, Quint. 3, 4, 2; Sen. Contr. 2, 1; Curt. 6, 7, 8; cf. Rudd. II. p. 212; Zumpt ad Quint. V. p. 122 Spalding.
          Hence the adverbial phrase a se = ὐφ’ ἑαυτοῦ, suā sponte, of one’s own uccord, spontaneously: ipsum a se oritur et suā sponte nascitur, Cic. Fin. 2, 24, 78: (urna) ab se cantat quoja sit, Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 21 (al. eāpse; cf. id. Men. 1, 2, 66); so Col. 11, 1, 5; Liv. 44, 33, 6.
        2. b. With names of towns to denote origin, extraction, instead of gentile adjectives. From, of: pastores a Pergamide, Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 1: Turnus ab Aricia, Liv. 1, 50, 3 (for which Aricinus, id. 1, 51, 1): obsides dant trecentos principum a Corā atque Pometiā liberos, Liv. 2, 22, 2; and poet.: O longa mundi servator ab Albā, Auguste, thou who art descended from the old Alban race of kings (= oriundus, or ortus regibus Albanis), Prop. 5, 6, 37.
        3. c. In giving the etymology of a name: eam rem (sc. legem, Gr. νόμον) illi Graeco putant nomine a suum cuique tribuendo appellatam, ego nostro a legendo, Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 19: annum intervallum regni fuit: id ab reinterregnum appellatum, Liv. 1, 17, 6: (sinus maris) ab nomine propinquae urbis Ambracius appellatus, id. 38, 4, 3; and so Varro in his Ling. Lat., and Pliny, in Books 1-5 of H. N., on almost every page. (Cf. also the arts. ex and de.)
        4. d. With verbs of beginning and repeating: a summo bibere, in Plaut. to drink in succession from the one at the head of the table: da, puere, ab summo, Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; so, da ab Delphio cantharum circum, id Most. 1, 4, 33: ab eo nobis causa ordienda est potissimum, Cic. Leg. 1, 7, 21: coepere a fame mala, Liv. 4, 12, 7: cornicem a caudā de ovo exire, tail-foremost, Plin. 10, 16, 18: a capite repetis, quod quaerimus, Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 18 al.
        5. e. With verbs of freeing from, defending, or protecting against any thing: a foliis et stercore purgato, Cato, R. R. 65 (66), 1: tantumne ab re tuast oti tibi? Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 23; cf.: Saguntini ut a proeliis quietem habuerant, Liv. 21, 11, 5: expiandum forum ab illis nefarii sceleris vestigiis, Cic. Rab. Perd. 4, 11: haec provincia non modo a calamitate, sed etiam a metu calamitatis est defendenda, id. Imp. Pomp. 6, 14 (v. defendo): ab incendio urbem vigiliis munitam intellegebat, Sall. C. 32: ut neque sustinere se a lapsu possent, Liv. 21, 35, 12: ut meam domum metueret atque a me ipso caveret, Cic. Sest. 64, 133.
        6. f. With verbs of expecting, fearing, hoping, and the like, ab = a parte, as, Cic. Att. 9, 7, 4: cum eadem metuam ab hac parte, since I fear the same from this side; hence, timere, metuere ab aliquo, not, to be afraid of any one, but, to fear something (proceeding from) from him: el metul a Chryside, Ter. And. 1, 1, 79; cf.: ab Hannibale metuens, Liv. 23, 36; and: metus a praetore, id. 23, 15, 7; v. Weissenb. ad h. l.: a quo quidem genere, judices, ego numquam timui, Cic. Sull. 20, 59: postquam nec ab Romanis robis ulla est spes, you can expect nothing from the Romans, Liv. 21, 13, 4.
        7. g. With verbs of fastening and holding: funiculus a puppi religatus, Cic. Inv. 2, 51, 154: cum sinistra capillum ejus a vertice teneret, Q. Cic. Pet. Cons. 3.
        8. h. Ulcisci se ab aliquo, to take vengeance on one: a ferro sanguis humanus se ulciscitur, Plin. 34, 14, 41 fin.
        9. i. Cognoscere ab aliquâ re to knoio or learn by means of something (different from ab aliquo, to learn from some one): id se a Gallicis armis atque insignibus cognovisse, Caes. B. G. 1, 22.
        10. j. Dolere, laborare, valere ab, instead of the simple abl.: doleo ab animo, doleo ab oculis, doleo ab aegritudine, Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 62: a morbo valui, ab animo aeger fui, id. Ep. 1, 2, 26; cf. id. Aul. 2, 2, 9: a frigore et aestu ne quid laborent, Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17; so, a frigore laborantibus, Plin. 32, 10, 46, § 133; cf.: laborare ab re frumentaria, Caes. B. G. 7, 10, 1; id. B. C. 3, 9; v. laboro.
        11. k. Where verbs and adjectives are joined with ab, instead of the simple abl., ab defines more exactly the respect in which that which is expressed by the verb or adj. is to be understood, in relation to, with regard to, in respect to, on the part of: ab ingenio improbus, Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 59: a me pudica’st, id. Curc. 1, 1, 51: orba ab optimatibus contio, Cic. Fl. 23, 54; ro Ov. H. 6,156: securos vos ab hac parte reddemus, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24 fin. (v. securus): locus copiosus a frumento, Cic. Att. 5, 18, 2; cf.: sumus imparati cum a militibas tum a pecunià, id. ib. 7, 15 fin.: ille Graecus ab omni laude felicior, id. Brut. 16, 63: ab unà parte haud satis prosperuin, Liv. 1, 32, 2 al.; so often in poets ab arte = arte, artfully, Tib. 1, 5, 4; 1, 9, 66; Ov. Am. 2, 4, 30.
        12. l. In the statement of the motive instead of ex, propter, or the simple abl. causae, from, out of, on account of, in consequence of: ab singulari amore scribo, Balb. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 7, B fin.: linguam ab irrisu exserentem, thrusting out the tongue in derision, Liv. 7, 10, 5: ab honore, id. 1, 8; so, ab irā, a spe, ab odio, v. Drak. ad Liv. 24, 30, 1: 26, 1, 3; cf. also Kritz and Fabri ad Sall. J. 31, 3, and Fabri ad Liv. 21, 36, 7.
        13. m. Especially in the poets instead of the gen.: ab illo injuria, Ter. And. 1, 1, 129: fulgor ab auro, Lucr. 2, 5: dulces a fontibus undae, Verg. G. 2, 243.
        14. n. In indicating a part of the whole, for the more usual ex, of, out of: scuto ab novissimis uni militi detracto, Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1: nonnuill ab novissimis, id. ib.; Cic. Sest. 65, 137; cf. id. ib. 59 fin.: a quibus (captivis) ad Senatum missus (Regulus).
        15. o. In marking that from which any thing proceeds, and to which it belongs: qui sunt ab disciplinā, Cic. Tusc. 2, 3, 7: ab eo qui sunt, id. Fin. 4, 3, 7: nostri illi a Platone et Aristotele aiunt, id. Mur. 30, 63 (in imitation of οί ὐπό τινος).
        16. p. To designate an office or dignity (with or without servus; so not freq. till after the Aug. period; in Cic. only once): Pollex, servus a pedibus meus, one of my couriers, Cic. Att. 8, 5, 1; so, a manu servus, a secretary, Suet. Caes. 74: Narcissum ab eplstulis (secretary) et Pallantem a rationibus (accountant), id. Claud. 28; and so, ab actis, ab admissione, ab aegris, ab apothecā, ab argento, a balneis, a bibliothecà, a codicillis, a jumentis, a potione, etc. (v. these words and Inscr. Orell. vol. 3, Ind. xi. p. 181 sq.).
        17. q. The use of ab before adverbs is for the most part peculiar to later Latinity: a peregre, Vitr. 5, 7 (6), 8: a foris, Plin. 17, 24, 37; Vulg. Gen, 7, 16; ib. Matt. 23, 27: ab intus, ib. ib. 7, 15: ab invicem, App. Herb. 112; Vulg. Matt. 25, 32; Cypr. Ep. 63, 9: Hier. Ep. 18: a longe, Hyg. Fab. 257; Vulg. Gen. 22, 4; ib. Matt. 26, 58: a modo, ib. ib. 23, 39; Hier. Vit. Hilar.: a nune, Vulg. Luc. 1, 48: a sursum, ib. Marc. 15, 38.
        1. a. Ab is not repeated like most other prepositions (v. ad, ex, in, etc.) with pron. interrog. or relat. after subst. and pron. demonstr. with ab: Arsinoën, Stratum, Naupactum … fateris ab hostibus esse captas. Quibus autem hostibus? Nempe iis, quos, etc., Cic. Pis. 37, 91: a rebus gerendis senectus abstrahit. Quibus? An iis, quae in juventute geruntur et viribus? id. Sen. 6: a Jove incipiendum putat. Quo Jove? id. Rep. 1, 36, 56: res publica, quascumque vires habebit, ab iis ipsis, quibus tenetur, de te propediem impetrabit, id. Fam. 4, 13, 5.
        2. b. Ab in Plantus is once put after the word which it governs: quo ab, As. 1, 1, 106.
        3. c. It is in various ways separated from the word which it governs: a vitae periculo, Cic. Brut. 91, 313: a nullius umquam me tempore aut commodo, id. Arch. 6, 12: a minus bono, Sall. C. 2, 6: a satis miti principio, Liv. 1, 6, 4: damnis dives ab ipsā suis, Ov. H. 9, 96; so id. ib. 12, 18; 13, 116.
        4. d. The poets join a and que, making aque; but in good prose que is annexed to the following abl. (a meque, abs teque, etc.): aque Chao, Verg. G. 4, 347: aque mero, Ov. M. 3, 631: aque viro, id. H. 6, 156: aque suis, id. Tr. 5, 2, 74 al. But: a meque, Cic. Fam. 2, 16, 1: abs teque, id. Att. 3, 15, 4: a teque, id. ib. 8, 11, § 7: a primāque adulescentiā, id. Brut. 91, 315 al.
        5. e. A Greek noun joined with ab stands in the dat.: a parte negotiati, hoc est πραγματικῆ, removisse, Quint. 3, 7, 1.
  3. III. In composition ab,
      1. 1. Retains its original signif.: abducere, to take or carry away from some place: abstrahere, to draw auay; also, downward: abicere, to throw down; and denoting a departure from the idea of the simple word, it has an effect apparently privative: absimilis, departing from the similar, unlike: abnormis, departing from the rule, unusual (different from dissimilis, enormis); and so also in amens = a mente remotus, alienus (out of one’s senses, without self-control, insane): absurdus, missounding, then incongruous, irrational: abutor (in one of its senses), to misuse: aborior, abortus, to miscarry: abludo; for the privative force the Latin regularly employs in-, v. 2. in.
      2. 2. It more rarely designates completeness, as in absorbere, abutor (to use up). (The designation of the fourth generation in the ascending or descending line by ab belongs here only in appearance; as abavus for quartus pater, great-great-grandfather, although the Greeks introduced ὺπόπαππος; for the immutability of the syllable ab in abpatrnus and abmatertera, as well as the signif. of the word abavus, grandfather’s grandfather, imitated in abnepos, grandchild’s grandchild, seems to point to a derivation from avi avus, as Festus, p. 13 Müll., explains atavus, by atta avi, or, rather, attae avus.)

Aba. (or Abas), ae, m., v. Aga.

(Ababus, false read. in inscrr., written for abavus.)

ăbactor, ōris, m. [abigo], = abigeus and abigeator, one who drives off, a driver off (late Latin): pecorum, Firm. Astr. 6, 31; cf. Isid. Orig. 10, 14; and boum, Min. Fel. O-ct. 5; and absol., a cuttle-stealer or thief, App. M. 7, p. 199 med. Elm.; Paul. Sent. ō, 18, 1.

1. ăbactus, a, um, Part. of abigo, q. v.

* 2. ăbactus, ūs, m. [abigo], a driving away, robbing (of cattle, vessels, etc.), Plin. Pan. 20, 4.

* ăbăcŭlus, i, m. dim. [abacus], a small cube or tile of colored glass for making ornamental pavements, the Gr. ὺβυκίσκος, Plin. 36, 26, 67, § 199.

ăbăcus, i (according to Prisc. 752 P. also ăbax, ăcis; cf. id. p. 688), m., = ἄβαξ, ᾰκος, prop. a square tublet; hence, in partic.,

  1. I. A sideboard, the top of which was made of marble, sometimes of silver, gold, or other precious material, chiefly used for the display of gold and silver vessels, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 16, § 35; 2, 4, 25, § 57; id. Tusc. 5, 21, 61; Varr. L. L. 9, § 46 Müll.; Plin. 37, 2, 6, § 14; Juv. 3, 2-0-4: perh. also called mensae Delphicae, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 59 init. Zumpt; Mart. 12, 67. Accord. to Liv. 39, 6, 7, and Plin. 34, 3, 8, § 14, Cn. Manlius Vulso flrst brought them from Asia to Rome, B.C. 187, in his triumph over the Galatae; cf. Becker, Gall. 2, p. 258 (2d edit.).
  2. II. A gaming-board, divided into compurtments, for playing with dice or counters, Suet. Ner. 22; Macr. S. 1, 5.
  3. III. A counting-table, covered with sand or dust, and used for arithmetical computation, Pers. 1, 131; App. Mag. p. 284; cf. Becker, Gall. 2, p. 65.
  4. IV. A wooden tray, Cato, R. R. 10, 4.
  5. V. A painted panel or square compariment in the wall or ceiling of a chamber, Vitr. 7, 3, 10; Plin. 33, 12, 56, § 159; 35, 1, 1, § 3, and 35, 6, 13, § 32.
  6. VI. In architecture, a fiat, square stone on the top of a column, immediately under the architrare, Vitr. 3, 5, 5 sq.; 4, 1, 11 sq.

Ābaddir (Ābădir), indecl. or īris, m. [Heb. [??], mighty father], the name of an Oriental deity, Prisc. p. 647 P.

Abaddon,m. indecl. [Heb. destruction], the name of the angel of Tartarus, Vulg. Apoc. 9, 11.

* ăb-aestŭo, āvi, ātum, 1, v. n. (prop. to wave down, hence), poet., to hang down richly: laetis ut vitis abaestuet uvis, Poët. (Tert. or Cypr.) de Jud. D-om. l.

(abagio, ōnis, the supposed etymology of adagio, by Varr. L. L. 7, § 31 Müll.)

* ăbagmentum, i, n. [abigo], a means for procuring abortion, Prisc. Med. 2, 34 dub.

* ăbălĭēnātĭo, önis, f. [abalieno], a legal transfer of property by sale or other alienation: abalienatio est ejus rei, quae mancipi est, aut traditio alteri nexu aut in jure cessio, inter quos ea jure civili fieri possunt, Cic. Top. 5 fin.

ăb-ălĭēno, āvi, ātum, 1, v. a., orig. to make alien from one or from one’s self, i.e. to remove, separate.

  1. I. Prop.
    1. A. In gen.: istuc crucior a viro me tali abalienarier, to be separated from such a man, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 11; so id. Trin. 2, 4, 112 and 156 (but in Ter. Heaut. 5, 2, 26, the correct read. is alienavit).
    2. B. In partic.
      1. 1. T. t., to convey the ownership of a thing to another, to make a legal transfer, to sell, alienate (cf. abalienatio): eam (picturam) vendat: ni in quadriduo Abalienârit, quo ex argentum acceperit, has sold, Plaut. As. 4, 1, 20; so, agros vectigales populi Romani, Cic. Agr. 2, 24, 64; cf. id. ib. 2, 27, 72: praedium, Dig. 10, 3, 14: pecus, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 50, § 119: sepulcrum, Inscr. Orell. 4357: aliquid ab se, ib. 3673.
      2. * 2. In med. lang.: membra morbis atalienata, i. e. dead, Quint. 8, 3, 75: opium sensus abalienat, makes unconscious, Scrib. Comp. 190: cf. id. ib. 192.
  2. II. Trop.
    1. A. In gen., to separate, remove, abstract: nisi mors meum animum aps to abalienavit, Plaut. Curc. 1, 3, 18; so, assueti malis abalienaverant ab sensu rerum suarum animos, had abstracted their thoughts from, Liv. 5, 42 fin.: de minuti capite, abalienati jure civium, deprived of, id. 22, 60, 15.
    2. B. In partic., to alienate, estrange, render disaffected (Ciceron.: syn.: alienare, inimicissimum reddere, disjungere; opp. conciliare, retinere); constr. aliquem or aliquid. with ab, the abl. or acc. only, or quite absol. (a) With ab: si in homines caros acerbius invehare, nonne a te judices abalienes? Cic. de Or. 2, 75, 304; so id. ib. 2, 48 fin.; 3, 25, 98; id. Fam. 1, 8, 4; id. Verr. 2, 4, 27: vaide benevolentiam concillant abalienantque ab iis, in quibus, etc., id. de Or. 2, 43, 182: animum ab se, Liv. 45, 6, 1.
          1. (β) With abl.: quo erant ipsl propter judicia abalienati, Cic. de Or. 2, 48, 199 B. and K.: quod Tissaphernes perjurio suo et homines suis rebus abalienaret et deos sibi iratos redderet, Nep. Ages. 2, 5 (cf. supra, II. A., the passage of Liv. 22, 60, 15).
          2. (γ) The acc. only: qui nos, quos favendo In communi causā retinere potuerunt, invidendo abalienārunt, Cic. Fam. 1, 7, 7: totam Africam, to estrange, Nep. Ham. 2, 2; cf. id. ib. 2, 4: (noster amicus) mirandum in modum est animo abalienato, alien ated, Cic. Att. 1, 3, 3; cf.: indigna patientium abalienabantur animi, Liv. 25, 38, 4.
          3. (δ) Absol. (very rate): timebant ne arguendo abalienarent, Liv. S, 2 fin. (for which, in the foll. ch.: ita Campanos abalienavit).

ăbambŭlantes: abscedentes, Paul. ex Fest. p. 26, 10 Müll.

ăbămĭta, ae, f. [avus-amita], sister of an abavus, or great-great-grandfather; also called amita maxima, Dig. 38, 10, 3; 10, § 17.

ăbante [ab-ante, like Incircum, insuper, etc.; cf. also the Heb. [??] and the Engl. from before].

  1. I. Prep. with abl., from before: abante oculis parcntis rapuerunt nymphae, away before the eyes of the father, Inscr. Grut. 717, 11.
  2. II. Adv., before: ne (quis) abante aliam (arcam) ponat, Inscr. Orell. 4396.

Ăbantĭus, a, um, adj., of Abantia, another name of Euboœa: classis, Eubosan, Stat. S. 4, 8, 46.

abarcet: prohibet, Paul. ex Fest. p. 15 Müll.; cf. abercet.

Ăbăris, ĭdis, m.

  1. I. A Rutulian, slain by Euryalus; acc. Abarim, Verg. A. 9, 344.
  2. II. A companion of Phineus, slain by Perseus; acc. Abarin, Ov. M. 5, 86.

Ăbărĭtānus, a, um, adj., of Abaris, a place in Africa: harundo, Plin. 16, 36, 66, § 172.

Ăbas, antis, m. = Ἄβας.

  1. I. The twelfth king of Argos, son of Lynceus and Hypermnestra, grandson of Danaūs, father of Acrisius, and grandfather of Perseus. His shield was gained by Æneas, Verg. A. 3, 286.
    1. B. Hence derivv.
      1. 1. Ăb-antĕus, a, um, adj., pertaining to Abas, Ov. M. 15, 164.
      2. 2. Ăbantĭădēs, ae, m. patron., a male descendant of Abas.
        1. a. His son Acrisius, Ov. M. 4, 607.
        2. b. His great grandson Perseus (by Danaë, daughter of Acrisius), Ov. M. 4, 673; 5, 138 al.
  2. II. A Centaur, son of Ixion, Ov. M. 12, 306.
  3. III. An Ethiopian, Ov. M. 5, 126.
  4. IV. A companion of Dionedes, Ov. M. 14, 505.
  5. V. A companion of Æneas, Verg. A. 1, 121.
  6. VI. A Tuscan chieftain, Verg. A. 10, 170 and 427.

ăbascantus, a, um, = ὐβὑσκαντος, unenvied: aeon, Tert. adv. Gnost. 10.

(abathon, false read. in Vitr. for ἄβυτον.)

Abătŏs, i, f., = Ἄβατος (inaccess (ble), a rocky island. in the Nile, not far from Philæ, to which the priests only had access, Luc. 10, 323 (in Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 7, written as Greek, Ἄβατος).

ăb-ăvĭa, ae, f. [avus, avia], mother of a great-grandfather, or of a great-grandmother, Dig. 38, 10, 1, § 6; 10, § 17.

ăb-ăvuncŭlus, i, m., great-greatuncle; also called avunculus maximus, Dig. 38, 10, 3; 10, § 17.

ăb-ăvus, i, m.

      1. 1. (= avi avus, cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 13 Müll.) Great-greatgrandfather, Plaut. Mil. 2, 4, 20; Cic. Brut. 58, 213; id. Har. Resp. 11, 22; 11, 38 (B. and K.); Dig. 38, 10, 1, § G; 10, § 15; called by Vergil quartus pater, A. 10, 619.
      2. 2. In gen., forefather, ancestor, Plin. 18, 6, 8, § 37; Sen. Clem. 1,10.

abax, acis, v. abacus init.

Abba, ae, false read. in Liv. 30, 7, 10, Instead of Obba, q. v.)

abba, indecl., = ἀββᾶ [Chald. Abba, Heb. ab], father, Vulg. Marc. 14, 36; ib. Rom. 8, 15; ib. Gal. 4, 6.

abbās, ātis, m. [avus, avia], the head of an ecclesiastical community, an abbot (eccl. Lat.), Sid. 16, 114; Inscr. Mommsen, 3485 (A. D. 468).
Hence, abbātissa, ae, f., an abbess, Inscr. Mommsen, 3896 (A. D. 570); and abbātĭa, ae, f., an abbey (eccl. Lat.), Hler.

Abbassus, i, f., = Ἄμβασον, Abbassus, a town in Phrygia, Liv. 38, 15 fin.

abbrĕviătio, ōnis, f. [abbrevio], an abbreviation, a diminution, Vulg. Isa. 10, 23.

ab-brĕvĭo, āre, v. freq. a. [ab or adbrevio], to shorten, abridge, Veg. Mil. 3 prol.; Vulg. Isa. 10, 22; ib. Rom. 9, 28.

(ab-cīdo, ĕre, cīdi, an incorrect form for abscído, q. v.)

Abdalonymus (Abdol-), i, m., a Sidonian of royal descent, made king of Sidon by Alexander the Great, Curt. 4, 1, 19 sq.; Just. 11, 10, 8.

Abdēra, ōrum, n., and ae, f., = Ἄβὀηρα.

  1. I. Abdera, a town on the southern coast of Thrace, not far from the mouth of the Nestus, noted for the stupidity of its inhabitants. It was the birthplace of the philosophers Protagoras, Democritus, and Anaxarchus; n., Liv. 45, 29, 6; Gell. 5, 3, 3; f., Ov. Ib. 469; Plin. 25, 8, 53, § 94 dub.; 4, 11, 18, § 42: hic Abdera, non tacente me, here was Abdera itself, Cic. Att. 4, 17, 3 (4, 16, 6).
      1. 2. Folly, stupidity, madness, Cic. l. l. (cf.: id est Ἀβὀηριτικόν, i. e. stupid, id. Att. 7, 7, 4, and Arn. 5, p. 164; Juv. 10, 50; Mart. 10, 25, 4).
    1. B. Hence, derivv.
      1. 1. Abdērīta and Abdērītes, ae, m., = Ἀβὀηριτς, an Abderite: Democritus Abderites, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17: Abderites Protagoras, Cic. N. D. 1, 23, 63; cf. id. Brut. 8: de Protagora Abderita, id. de Or. 3, 32, 128: Abderitae legati, Liv. 43, 4, 8; cf. id. § 12 sq.; Vitr. 7, 5, 6; Just. 15, 2 al.
      2. 2. Ab-dērītānus, a, um, adj., of Abdera, meton. for stupid, foolish: Abderitanae pectora plebis habes, Mart. 10, 25, 4.
  2. II. A city of Hispania Baetlca, on the southern coast, now Adra, Mel. 2, 6, 7; Plin. 3, 1, 3, § 8.

abdĭcātĭo, ōnis, f. [abdĭco], a renouncing, disowning.

    1. 1. Jurid. t. t.: hereditatis, Cod. Just. 6, 31, 6: liberorum, disinheriting, ib. 6, 8, 47; Quint. 7, 4, 27; 3, 6, 77; 7, 1, 15; Plin. 7, 45, 46, § 150 al.; cf. Dirksen, Versuch., etc., Leipz. 1823, p. 62 sq.
    2. * 2. Polit. t. t., a renunciation of an office, abdication: dictaturae, Liv. 6, 16 fin.

abdĭcātīvē, adv., v. abdicativus.

abdĭcătīvus, a, um, adj. [abdĭco]. In later philos. lang. = negativus, negative (opp. to dedicativus, affirmative), Pseudo ysp. Dogm. Plat. p. 30 Elm. (266 Ord.); Mart. Cap. 4, p. 121.
Adv.: abdĭcātīvē, negatively: concludere, Mart. Cap. 4, p. 128.

abdĭcātrix, īcis, f. [abdĭco], she that renounces or disclaims any thing (eccl. Lat.): misericordiae (humanitas), Salv. adv. Avar. 11, p. 76.

1. ab-dĭco, āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. (prop. to indicate, announce something as not belonging to one; hence),

  1. I. In gen., to deny, disown, refuse, reject.
    With acc. und inf.: mortem ostentant, regno expellunt, consanguineam esse abdicant, deny her to be, Pac. ap. Non. 450, 30 (Trag. Rel. p. 84 Rib.): abdicat enim voluptati inesse bonitatem, Pseudo Apul. de Dogm. Plat. 3 init.
    With acc. (so very freq. in the elder Pliny): naturam abdico, Pac. ap. Non. 306, 32 (Trag. p. 120 Rib.): ubi plus mali quam boni reperio, id totum abdico atque eicio, Cic. de Or. 2, 24, 102: legem agrariam, Plin. 7, 30, 31, § 116: corticem, id. 13, 22, 43, § 124: ea (signa) in totum, id. 10, 4, 5, § 16; cf.: utinam posset e vita in totum abdicari (aurum), be got rid of, id. 33, 1, 3, § 6: omni venere abdicata, id. 5, 17, 15, § 73 al.
  2. II. In partic.
    1. A. Jurid. t. t., to renounce one, partic. a son, to disinherit (post-Aug.): qui ex duobus legitlmis alterum in adoptionem dederat, alterum abdicaverat, Quint. 3, 6, 97; cf.: minus dicto audientem fllium, id. 7, 1, 14: ex meretrice natum, id. 11, 1, 82 al.: quae in scholis abdicatorum, haee in foro exheredatorum a parcntibus ratio cst, id. 7, 4, 11.
      Absol.: pater abdicans, Quint. 11, 1, 59; cf.: filius abdicantis, id. 4, 2, 95; and: abdicandi jus, id. 3, 6, 77.
      Hence, patrem, to disoun, Curt. 4, 10, 3.
    2. B. Polit. t. t.: abdicare se magistratu, or absol. (prop. to detach one’s self from an office, hence), to renounce an office, to resign, abdicate (syn.: deponere magistratum): consules magistratu se abdicaverunt, Cic. Div. 2, 35, 74; so, so magistrutu, id. Leg. 2, 12, 31; Liv. 4, 15, 4 al.: se dictatu. rā, Caes. B. C. 3, 2; Liv. 2, 31, 10; 9, 26, 18 al.: sc consulatu, id. 2, 2, 10; Vell. 2, 22, 2: se praeturā, Cic. Cat. 3, 6, 14: se aedilitate, Liv. 39, 39, 9 etc. Likewise: se tutelā, Cic. Att. 6, 1, 4; and fig.: se scriptu, Piso ap. Gell. 6, 9, 4; cf.: eo die (Antonius) se non modo consulatu, sed etiam libertate abdicavit, Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 12.
      Absol.: augures rem ad senatum; senatus, ut abdicarent consules: abdicaverunt, Cic. N. D. 2, 4, 11.
        1. b. With acc. a few times in the historians: (patres) abdicare consulatum jubentes et deponere imperium, Liv. 2, 28 fin.: abdicando dictaturam, id. 6, 18, 4.
          In pass.: abdicato magistratu, Sall. C. 47, 3; cf.: inter priorem dictaturam abdicatam novamque a Manlio initam, Liv. 6, 39: causa non abdicandae dictaturae, id. 5, 49 fin.

2. ab-dīco, xi, ctum, 3, v. a. A word peculiar to augural and judicial lang. (opp. addīco).

  1. * I. Of an unfavorable omen, nod to assent to: cum tres partes (vineae) aves abdixissent, Cic. Div. 1, 17, 31.
  2. II. In judicial lang.: abdicere vindicias ab aliquo, to take away by sentence (= abjudicare), Dig. 1, 2, 24 (cf. Liv. 3, 56, 4).

abdĭtē, adv., v. abdo, P. a. fin.

abdĭtīvus, a, um, adj. [abdo].

  1. I. Removed or separated from = remotus, sejunctus: a patre, Plaut. Poen. prol. 65.
  2. II. ABDITIVI: abortivi, Paul. ex Fest. p. 22 Müll. (without an example).

abdĭtus, a, um, Part. of abdo.

ab-do, ĭdi, ĭtum, 3, v. a. [2. do].

  1. I. Lit., to put away, remove: and abdere se, to go away, betake one’s self to some place: ex conspectu eri sui se abdiderunt, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 5: pedestres copias paulum ab eo loco abditas in locis superioribus constituunt, removed, withdrawn, Caes. B. G. 7, 79, 2; so with ab: ascensu abdito a conspectu, Liv. 10, 14, 14: procul ardentes hinc precor abde faces, remove, Tib. 2, 1, 82.
    The terminus ad quem is usually expressed by in with acc.: abdidit se in intimam Macedoniam quo potuit longissime a castris, Cic. Fam. 13, 29, 4; so, se in contrariam partem terrarum, id. Mur. 41, 89: se in classem, Dolab. ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 9, 2: se in Menapios, to depart, Caes. B. G. 6, 5, 5: In silvam Arduennam, id. ib. 5, 3, 4: exercitum in interiora, to uithdraw, Vell. 2, 110, 3: ea in insulam Seriphon abdita est (= ex humanā societate quasi expulsa), banished, exiled, Tac. A. 2, 85: se in bibliothecam, i. e. to retire to, Cic. Fam. 7, 28; cf.: se totum in litteras, id. ib. 7, 33, 2.
    Rarely with other prepositions or with local adv.: Audisne haec, Amphiaraë, sub terram abdite? Poët. (Att.?) ap. Cic. Tusc. 2, 25, 60; so with sub, Lucr. 4, 419: se rus, Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 99: se domum, Cic. Pis. 38, 92: se Arpinum, id. Att. 9, 6, 1.
  2. II. Transf., to hide, conceal, keep secret, etc. (syn.: occulto, recondo); constr. aliquid, without or with in and abl., with other prepositions, with abl. only, or dat., with a localadv.
          1. (α) Aliquid: quae partes corporisaspectum essent deformem habiturae, eas contexit atque abdidit (natura), Cic. Off. 1, 35, 126: amici tabellas, id. Pis. 17, 39: lacrimas, operire luctum, Plin. Ep. 3, 16, 6: abduntur (delphini) occultanturque incognito more, Plin. H. N. 9, 8, 7, § 22; cf.: occultare et abdere pavorem, Tac. H. 1, 88: pugnare cupiebant, sed retro revocanda et abdenda cupiditas erat, Liv. 2, 45, 7; so, sensus suos penitus, Tac. A. 1, 11: aliquid dissimulata offensione, id. ib. 3, 64.
          2. (β) With in and abl.: cum se ille fugiens in scalarum tenebris abdidisset, Cic. Mil. 15, 40; cf.: qui dispersos homines in agris et in tectis silvestribus abditoscompulit unum in locum, id. Inr. 1, 2, 2: abditi in tabernaculis, Caes. B. G. 1, 39, 4; cf.: in silvis, id. ib. 9, 19, 6: penitus qui in ferrost abditus aër, Lucr. 6, 1037 al.
          3. (γ) With other prepp.: cultrum, quem sub veste abditum habebat, Liv. 1, 58 fin.; cf. Ov. M. 10, 715: ferrum carvo tenus hamo, id. ib. 4, 719.
            (ὀ) With abl.: caput cristatā casside, Ov. M. 8, 25: corpus corneā domo, Phaedr. 2, 6, 5: gladium sinu, Tac. A. 5, 7: latet abditus agro, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 5: hunc (equum) abde domo, Verg. G. 3, 96: ita se litteris abdiderunt, at, etc., Cic. Arch. 6, 12; v. Halm ad h. l.
            (ε) With dat. (poet.): lateri capulo tenus abdidit ensem, he baried, Verg. A. 2, 553.
            (ζ) With local adv.: corpus humi, Flor. 4, 12, 38.
            Hence. abditus, a, um, P. a., hidden, concealed, secreted, secret (syn.: reconditus, abscontlitus, occultus, retrusus): sub terram abditi, Att. ap. Cic. Tusc. 2, 25, 60: vis abdita quaedum, Lucr. 5, 1233: res occultae et penitus abditae, Cic. N. D. 1, 19: sunt innumerabiles de his rebus libri neque abditi neque obscuri, id. de Or. 2, 20, 84: haec esse penitus in mediā philosophiā; retrusa atque abdita, id. ib. 1, 19, 87 al.: oppida, remote, Cod. Th. 15, 1, 14.
            Comp. abditior, Aug. Conf. 5, 5; 10, 10.
            Sup. abditissimus, Aug. Enchir. c. 16.
  3. II. In the neutr.: abdĭtum, i, subst.: terrai abdita, Lucr. 6, 809; so, abdita rerum (= abditae res), Hor. A.P. 49: in abdito coire, in concealment, secretly, Plin. 8, 5, 5, § 13.
    Adv.: abdĭtē secretly: latuisse, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 73, § 181; Ambros. Job et Dav. 1, 9, 29.

Abdŏlŏnymus, v. Abdalonymus.

abdŏmĕn, ĭnis, n. [etym. uncertain; perh. for adipomen, from adeps, or perh. from abdo, to conceal, cover], the fat lower part of the belly, the paunch, abdomen, λαπάρα.

  1. I. Lit., of men and animals: abdomina thynni, Lucil. ap. Non. 35, 22; so Plaut. Curc. 2, 3, 44; Cels. 4, 1 fin.; Plin. 8, 51, 77 fin.; 11, 37, 84 fin.; Juv. 4, 107; Aus. Idyll. 10, 104.
  2. II. Meton. for gluttony, sensuality: ille heluo natus abdomini suo, non laudi, Cic. Pis. 17, 41; so, natus abdomini, Treb. Gall. 17; cf. also Cic. Pis. 27, 66; id. Sest. 51, 110.
    With respect to carnal lust: jamdudum gestit moecho hoc abdomen adimere, Plaut. Mil. 5, 5; but opp. to lechery (libido): alius libidine insanit, alius abdomini servit, Sen. Ben. 7, 26, 4.

ab-dūco, xi, ctum, 3, v. a. (ABDOVCIT = abduit, in the epitaph of Scipio, Inscr. Orell. 550; perf. abduxti, Plaut. Curc. 5, 2, 16; imper. abduce, id. Bacch. 4, 9, 108; id. Curc. 5, 3, 15; Ter. Ad. 3, 4, 36; id. Phorm. 2, 3, 63; but also abduc, id. Eun. 2, 3, 86), to lead one away, to take or bring with one, to carry off, take or bring away, remove, etc.

  1. I. Lit.
    1. A. In gen., of personal objects; constr. aliquem, ab, ex, de; in, ad: SVBIGIT. OMNE. LOVCANAM. OPSIDESQVE. ABDOVCIT (= subigit omnem Lucanam obsidesque abducit), epitaph of Scipio, 1. 1.: hominem P. Quinctii deprehendis in publico; conaris abducere, Cic. Quint. 19, 61: cohortes secum, Caes. B. C. 1, 15 med. al.: abduce me hinc ab hac, quantum potest, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 108: abductus a mari atque ab lis copiis, quas, etc. … frumento ac commeatu abstractus, Caes. B. C. 3, 78: tamquam eum, qui sit rhetori tradendus, abducendum protinus a grammaticis putem, Quint. 2, 1, 12: ut Hispanos omnes procul ab nomine Scipionis ex Hispania abduceret, Liv. 27, 20, 7: tu dux, tu comes es; tu nos abducis ab Histro. Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 119: ut collegam vi de foro abducerent, Liv. 2, 56, 15: sine certamine inde abductae legiones, id. 2, 22, 2: credo (illum) abductum in ganeum aliquo, Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 5: abduxi exercitum ad infestissimam Ciliciae partem, Cic. Fam. 2, 10, 3: ipsos in lautumias abduci imperabat, id. Verr. 2, 5, 56 fin.; so, liberos eorum in servitutem, Caes. B. G. 1, 11, 3: servum extra convivium, Sen. Contr. 4, 25.
      Poet. with acc. only: tollite me, Teucri; quascumque abducite terras (= in terras), Verg. A. 3, 601.
        1. b. Of animals: donec (avem) in diversum abducat a nidis, Plin. 10, 33, 51 fin.
        2. c. . Sometimes also of inanim. objects: clavem, to take away, Plaut. Cas. 5, 2, 8: pluteos ad alia opera, Caes. B. C. 2, 9: capita retro ab ictu, to draw back, Verg. A. 5, 428: togam a faucibus ac summo pectore, Quint. 11, 3, 145: aquam alicui (= deducere, defiectere), to divert, draw off, Dig. 39, 2, 26.
          Poet.: somnos, to take away, deprive of, Ov. F. 5, 477.
    2. B. In partic.
      1. 1. To take with one to dine: tum me convivam solum abducebat sibi, Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 17: advenientem ilico abduxi ad cenam, id. Heaut. 1, 2, 9 al.
      2. 2. To take aside (in mal. part.): aliquam in cubiculum, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 7; so Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 33; Suet. Aug. 69; Just. 21, 2 fin. al.
      3. 3. To carry away forcibly, to raxish, rob: ad quem iste deduxerat Tertiam, Isidori mimi flliam, vi abductam ab Rhodio tibicine, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 34; cf. id. ib. 2, 5, 31, § 81; Verg. A. 7, 362: aliquam alicui (marito, etc.), Suet. Oth. 3; Dig. 47, 10, 1 al.: aliquam gremils, Verg. A. 10, 79.
        So also of stolen cattle, to drive away: cujus (Geryonis) armenta liercules abduxerit, Plin. 4, 22, 36 fin.; so, abducta armenta, Ov. H. 16, 359.
      4. 4. In jurid. lang.: auferre et abducere, to take and drive away (auferre of inanlmate things, abducere of living beings, as slaves, cattle), Cic. Quint. 27, 84; Dig. 21, 2, 57, § 1.
  2. II. Trop.
    1. A. In gen., to lead away, separate, distinguish: animum ad se ipsum advocamus, secum esse cogimus, maximeque a corpore abducimus, Cic. Tusc. 1, 31; so, aciem mentis a consuetudine oculorum, id. N. D. 2, 17: divinationem caute a conjecturis, id. Div. 2, 5, 13.
    2. B. In partic.
      1. 1. To seduce, alienate from fidelity or allegiance: legiones a Bruto, Cic. Phil. 10, 3, 6: exercitum ab illo, id. ib. 10, 4, 9: equitatum a consule, id. ib. 11, 12, 27 al.
      2. 2. From a study, pursuit, duty, etc., to withdraw, draw off, hinder (syn.: avoco, averto): vos a vostris abduxi negotlis, Plaut. Rud. 1, 2, 1; cf.: a quo studio te abduci negotiis intellego, Cic. Fam. 4, 4, 5; and: abducuntur homines nonnumquam etiam ab institutis suis magnitudine pecuniae, id. Verr. 2, 4, 6, § 12 (followed by ab humanitate deducere); so, aliquem a meretricio quaestu, id. Phil. 2, 18: aliquem a populorum rebus, id. Rep. 5, 2: ab isto officio incommodo, id. Lael. 2, 8 al.
      3. 3. To bring down, reduce, degrade (Ciceron.): ne ars tanta … a religionis auctoritate abduceretur ad mercedem atque quaestum, Cic. Div. 1, 41, 92; so, aliquem ad hanc hominum libidinem ac licentiam, id. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 210.

abductĭo, ōnis, f. [abduco, I.B. 3.].

  1. I. A forcible carrying off, ravishing, robbing, Cod. Th. 4, 8, 5, § 5; 11, 10, 1.
      1. 2. (Of a woman.) Abduction: in abductione Hesionae, Dares Phryg. 4.
  2. II. A retirement, Vulg. Eccli. 38, 20.

abductus, a, um, Part. of abduco.

Abeātae, arum, m., the Abeatoe, inhabitants of A bea in Achaia, Plin. 4, 6, 10, § 22.

ăbĕcĕdārĭus, a, um [a, b, c, d], belonging to the alphabet, alphabetical (late Lat.).

  1. I. Adj.: psalmi, Aug. Retract. 1, 20.
  2. II. Subst.
    1. A. ăbĕcĕdāĭus, ĭi, m., one who learns the a, b, c (eccl. Lat.).
    2. B. ăbĕcĕdārĭa, ae, f., elementary instruction, Fulg. Myth. 3, 10.
    3. C. ăbĕ-cĕdārĭum, ĭi, n., a, b, c, the alphabet (eccl. Lat.).

Ăbēl, indecl. or ēlls, and Ăbēlus, i, m., Abel, son of Adam, Vulg.
Hence, Abelĭca Virtus, Mythogr. Vatic. 3, 6, 15.

Ăbella, ae, f., a town in Campania, near Nolu, abounding in fruit-trees and nuts, now Avella, Sil. 8, 545: malifera, Verg. A. 7, 740.
Hence, Abellāna nux or Avellana, also Abellina, the filbert, Plin. 15, 22, 24, § 88; and Abellani, the inhabitants of Abella, Just. 20, 1.

Abellīnum, i, n., Abellinum, a city of the Hirpini, in Italy, Plin. 3, 5, 9, § 63; hence, Abellīnātes, ium, m., the inhabitants of Abellinum, id. 3, 16, 11, § 105; another town of this name in Italy is referred to by Pliny, 1. 1.

Abellĭo, ōnis, m., the name of a Gallic deity, Inser. Orell. 1952 sq.

ăbemĭto significat demito vel auferto (take away); EMERE enim antiqui dicebant pro accipere, Paul. ex Fest. p. 4 Müll.; cf. adimo.

ăb-ĕo, ĭvi or ii, ītum, īre, v. n. (abin = abisne, Plaut. and Ter.; abiit, dissyl., v. Herm. Doctr. Metr. p. 153), to go from a place, to go away, depart.

  1. I. Lit..
    1. A. In gen., constr. with ab, ex, the simple abl., the acc. with in, the local adv. hinc, and absol.: abeo ab illo, Plaut. Cure. 2, 3, 70: abi in malam rem maxumam a me, id. Ep. 1, 1, 72 (v. infra); so id. Bacch. 4, 9, 107: abin e conspectu meo? id. Am. 1, 3, 20 (but also abin ab oculis? id. Trin. 4, 2, 140: id. Truc. 2, 5, 24): ablturos agro Argivos, id. Am. 1, 1, 53: abire in aliquas terras, Cic. Cat. 1, 8, 20: insanus, qui hinc abiit modo, Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 61: abi prae, jam ego sequar, go on, I will soon follow, id. Am. 1, 3, 45.
      With supine: abiit exsulatum, into exile, Plaut. Merc. 3, 4, 6; Liv. 2, 15 fin.; cf.: abi deambulatum, Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 26.
      Absol.: (Catilina) abiit, excessit, evasit, erupit, Cic. Cat. 2, 1, 1: praetor de sellā surrexit atque abiit, id. Verr. 2, 4, 65 fin.: quae dederat abeuntibus, Verg. A. 1, 196 al.: sub jugum abire, Liv. 3, 2, 8 fin.
      With inf.: abi quaerere, Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 26.
      Of things: cornus sub altum pectus abit, penetrates deeply, Verg. A. 9, 700.
    2. B. In partic.
      1. 1. To pass away, so that no trace remains; to disappear, vanish, cease.
        1. a. Of man, to die: qui nune abierunt hinc in communem locum (i.e. in Orcum), Plaut. Cas. prol. 19; cf.: ea mortem obiit, e medio abiit, Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 30; so also Cic.: abiit e vitā, Tusc. 1, 30, 74 al.
        2. b. Of time, to pass away, elapse: dum haec abiit hora, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 50: menses, id. Ad. 4, 5, 57: annus, Cic. Sest. 33, 72: abit dies, Cat. 61, 195: tota abit hora, Hor. S. 1, 5, 14.
        3. c. Of other things: per inane profundum, Lucr. 1, 1108: nausea jam plane abiit? Cic. Att. 14, 10, 2; so id. Fam. 9, 20; Ov. M. 7, 290 al.
      2. 2. To be changed from one’s own ways or nature into something else, to be transformed, metamorphosed; always constr. with in (chiefly poet., esp. in Ov. M., as a constant expression for metamorphosis): terra abit in nimbos imbremque, Lucil. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 24 Müll.: in corpus corpore toto, to pass with their whole body into another, Lucr. 4, 1111: aut abit in somnum, is, as it were, wholly dissolved in sleep, is all sleep, id. 3, 1066: E in V abiit. Varr. L. L. 5, § 91 Müll.: in villos abeunt vestes, in crura lacerti, Ov. M. 1, 236; id. ib. 2, 674: jam barba comaeque in silvas abeunt, id. ib. 4, 657; 4, 396; so id. ib. 3, 398; 8,555; 14, 499; 14, 551 al.: in vanum abibunt monentium verba, will dissolce into nothing, Sen. Ep. 94 med.; hence, in avi mores regem abiturum, would adopt the ways of, Liv. 1, 32.
  2. II. Trop.
    1. A. In gen., to depart from, to leave off, to turn aside: ut ab jure non abeat, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 44, § 114; so, ab emptione, Dig. 2, 14, 7, § 6; 18, 2, 14, § 2 sq.: a venditione, ib. 18, 5, 1: sed abeo a sensibus, leave, i. e. speak no more of, Cic. Ac. 2, 28, 9; so often with longe: non longe abieris, you need not go far to seek for examples, id. Fam. 7, 19; cf.: ne longius abeam, id. Rosc. Am. 16, 47; id. Caec. 33, 95 al.: quid ad istas ineptias abis? why do you have recourse to —? id. Rosc. Am. 16, 47: abit causa in laudes Cn. Pompeii, Quint. 9, 2, 55: illuc, unde abii, redeo, I set out, Hor. S. 1, 1, 108: pretium retro abiit, has fallen, Plin. Ep. 3, 19, 7.
    2. B. In partic.
      1. 1. With abl., to retire from an office or occupation: abiens magistratu, Cic. Pis. 3, 6; id. Fam. 5, 2, 7: Liv. 2, 27 fin.; 3, 38 fin. al.; so, abire consulatu, Cic. Att. 1, 16, 5; cf. flaminio, Liv. 26, 23 fin.: sacerdotio, Gell. 6, 7, 4: honore, Suet. Aug. 26: tutelā, Dig. 26, 4, 3, § 8; cf.: tutelā vel curā, ib. 26, 10, 3, § 18 al.
      2. 2. Of the consequence or result of an action, to turn out, end, terminate: mirabar hoc si sic abiret, Ter. And. 1, 2, 4: cf.: non posse ista sic abire, Cic. Att. 14, 1; so id. Fin. 5, 3, 7; Cat. 14, 16 al.
      3. 3. In auctions, t. t., not to be knocked down to one: si res abiret ab eo mancipe, should not fall to him, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 54; cf.: ne res abiret ab eo, that he may purchase it, id. 2, 3, 64; so Dig. 18, 2, 1; 50, 17, 205.
      4. 4. The imper. abi is often a simple exclamation or address, either with a friendly or reproachful signif.
        1. a. Abi, Indis me, credo, Begone, you are fooling me! Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 32; so Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 25; cf. Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 205.
        2. b. Begone! be off! abi modo, Plaut. Poen. 1, 3, 20: abi, nescis inescare homines, Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 12; bence in the malediction, abi in malam rem! go be hanged! Plaut. Pers. 2, 4, 17: abin hine in malam crucem? id. Most. 3, 2, 163 (ef. Cic.: quin tu abis in malam pestem malumque cruciatum? Phil. 13, 21); v. crux and cruciatus.

Ăbĕōna, ae, f. [abeo], the goddess of departing children, Aug. Civ. Dei, 4, 21.

* ăb-ĕquĭto, āre, v. n., to ride away: ut praetores pavidi abequitaverint Syracu sas, Liv. 24, 31, 10: v. Weissenb. ad b 1.

ăbercet = prohibet, Paul. ex Fest. p. 25 Müll.

ăberrātĭo, ōnis, f. [aberro, II. B.], a relief from something, a diversion; perh. only in Cicero (and in him only in two passages): a dolore, Att. 12, 38, 3 (cf. ib. § 1: non equidem levor, sed tamen aberro): a molestiis, id. Fam. 15, 18, 1.

ăb-erro, āvi, ātum, 1, v. n., to wander from the way, to go astray.

  1. I. Lit.: puer inter homines aberravit a patre, Plaut. Men. prol. 31: taurus, qui pecore aberrāsset, Liv. 41, 13, 2.
  2. II. Trop.
    1. A. (Like abeo, II. A.) To wander from, stray, or deviate from a purpose, subject, etc. (Ciceronian): a regulā et praescriptione naturae, Cic. Acc. 2, 46, 140: ne ab eo, quod propositum est, longius aberret oratio, id. Caecin. 19; so id. Off. 1, 28; 1, 37; id. Fin. 5, 28 al.
      Also without ab: vereor ne nihil conjecturā aberrem, Cic. Att. 14, 22 (with a conjecturā, id. N. D. 1, 36, 100): etiam si aberrare ad alia coeperit, ad haec revocetur oratio, id. Off. 1, 37 fin.: rogo, ut artificem (sc. pictorem), quem elegeris, ne in melius quidem sinas aberrare, that the painter should not depart from the original, even to improve it, Plin. Ep. 4, 28 fin.
    2. B. To divert the mind or attention, to forget for a time: at ego hic scribendo dies totos nihil equidem levor, sed tamen aberro, I am indeed not free from sorrow, but I divert my thoughts, Cic. Att. 12, 38; so id. ib. 12, 45 (cf. aberratio).

abfŏre and abfŏrem, v. absum.

abgrĕgāre est a grege ducere, Paul. ex Fest. p. 23 Müll.

(abhĭĕmo, a false read. for hiemo, Plin. 18, 35, 81, § 354.)

ăb-hinc, temp. adv.

  1. I. Of future time, henceforth, hence, hereafter (anteclass.): seque ad ludos jam inde abhinc exerceant, Pac. ap. Charis. 175 P. (Trag. Rel. p. 80 Rib.); so, aufer abhinc lacrimas.
    But more usu.,
  2. II. Of past time, ago, since; with acc. or abl., and the cardin. num. (except the comic poets most freq. in Cic., both in his Orations and Letters).
          1. (α) With acc.: sed abhinc annos factumst sedecim, Plaut. Cas. prol. 39; so Ter. And. 1, 1, 42; id. Hec. 5, 3, 24; id. Phorm. 5, 9, 28; cf.: abhinc triennium, Cic. Rosc. Com. 13: abhinc annos quattuordecim, id. Verr. 2, 1, 12, § 34; cf. id. Balb. 6, 16; id. Phil. 2, 46, 119; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 36 al.
          2. (β) With abl.: qui abhinc sexaginta annis occisus foret, Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 63; so, abhinc annis xv., Cic. Rosc. Com. 13: comitiis jam abhinc diebus triginta factis, thirty days ago, id. Verr. 2, 2, 52 fin. In Lucr. 3, 967: aufer abhinc lacrimas, it is prob. only a fuller expression for hinc, as in Plaut. Pers. 5, 2, 19: jurgium hinc auferas, since there is no other example where abhinc is used of place. Vid. upon this article, Hand, Turs. 1, 63-66.

ăb-horrĕo, ui, ēre, 2, v. n. and a., to shrink back from a thing, to shudder at, abhor.

  1. I. Lit. (syn. aversor; rare but class.); constr. with ab or absol., sometimes with the acc. (not so in Cicero; cf. Haase ad Reisig Vorles. p. 696): retro volgus abhorret ab hac, shrinks back from, Lucr. 1, 945; 4, 20: omnes aspernabantur, omnes abhorrebant, etc., Cic. Clu. 14, 41: quid tam abhorret hilaritudo? Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 56: pumilos atque distortos, Suet. Aug. 83; so id. Galb. 4; Vit. 10.
  2. II. Transf., in gen.
    1. A. To be averse or disinclined to a thing, not to wish it, usu. with ab: a nuptiis, Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 92: ab re uxoriā, id. And. 5, 1, 10; and so often in Cic.: Caesaris a causā, Cic. Sest. 33: a caede, id. ib. 63: ab horum turpitudine, audaciā, sordibus, id. ib. 52, 112: a scribendo abhorret animus, id. Att. 2, 6: animo abhorruisse ab optimo statu civitatis, id. Phil. 7, 2: a ceterorum consilio, Nep. Milt. 3, 5 al.
    2. B. In a yet more general sense, to be remote from an object, i. e. to vary or differ from, to be inconsistent or not to agree with (freq. and class.): temeritas tanta, ut non procul abhorreat ab insaniā, Cic. Rosc. Am. 24, 68: a vulgari genere orationis atque a consuetudine communis sensus, id. de Or. 1, 3, 12: oratio abhorrens a personā hominis gravissimi, id. Rep. 1, 15: ab opinione tuā, id. Verr. 2, 3, 20: Punicum abhorrens os ab Latinorum nominum prolatione, Liv. 22, 13; so id. 29, 6; 30, 44: a fide, to be incredible, id. 9, 36: a tuo scelere, is not connected with, Cic. Cat. 1, 7 al.
      Hence, like dispar, with dat.: tam pacatae profectioni abhorrens mos, not accordant with, Liv. 2, 14.
      1. 2. To be free from: Caelius longe ab istā suspicione abhorrere debet, Cic. Cael. 4.
      2. 3. Absol.
          1. (α) To alter: tantum abhorret ac mutat, alters and changes, Cat. 22, 11.
          2. (β) To be unfit: sin plane abhorrebit et erit absurdus, Cic. de Or. 2, 20, 85; cf.: absurdae atque abhorrentes lacrimae, Liv. 30, 44, 6; and: carmen abhorrens et inconditum, id. 27, 37, 13.

ăb-horresco, ĕre, = horresco (eccl. Lat.), Vulg. 2 Macc. 6, 12.

* ăb-horridē, adv., in an unfit manner, improperly, Charis. p. 41 P.

ăbĭcĭo or abjĭc- (in the best MSS. abicio; cf. ăbĭci, Ov. P. 2, 3, 37; ăbĭcit, Juv. 15, 17), ĕre, jēci, jectum, 3, v. a. [ab-jacio], to cast away, to throw away, throw down.

  1. I. Lit.: in sepulcrum ejus abjecta gleba non est, Varr. L. L. 5, § 23 Müll.: scutum, Cic. Tusc. 2, 23: insigne regium de capite, id. Sest. 27: socer ad pedes abjectus, id. ib. 34; so, se ad pedes, id. Phil. 2, 34, 86: se e muro in mare, id. Tusc. 1, 34; so, corpus in mare, id. Phil. 11, 2, 5: impelluntur, feriuntur, abiciuntur, cadunt, id. Tusc. 2, 15, 36: se abjecit exanimatus, he threw himself down as if lifeless, id. Sest. 37.
    Absol.: si te uret sarcina, abicito, throw it down, Hor. Ep. 1, 13, 7.
    Also with in and abl., when the place from which a thing is thrown is designated: anulum in mari, Cic. Fin. 5, 30, 92 Madv. N. cr.; so, ut se abiceret in herba, id. de Or. 1, 7, 28: statuas in propatulo domi, Nep. Hann. 9, 3: cadaver in viā, Suet. Ner. 48; cf.: ubi cadaver abjeceris, Tac. A. 1, 22.
  2. II. Fig.
    1. A. In gen., to cast off, throw away, give up, etc.: ut primum tenebris abjectis inalbabat, as soon as the day, having dispelled the darkness, was beginning to brighten, Enn. Ann. v. 219 Vahl.: nusquam ego vidi abjectas aedīs, nisi modo hasce, thrown away, i.e. sold too low, Plaut. Most. 3, 3, 3: psaltria aliquo abiciendast, must be got rid off (il faut se defaire d’elle, Dacier), Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 26: vitam, Cic. Att. 3, 19: salutem pro aliquo, id. Planc. 33: memoriam beneficiorum, id. Phil. 8, 11: versum, to declaim it carelessly, id. de Or. 3, 26 (cf. with id. ib. 3, 59: ponendus est ille ambitus, non abiciendus, the period must be brought gradually to a close, not broken off abruptly).
    2. B. In partic.
      1. 1. To throw off, cast aside care for, remembrance of, etc., to give up, abandon: abicimus ista, we let that go, Cic. Att. 13, 3: fama ingenii mihi est abicienda, I must renounce, id. ib. 9, 16: domum Sullanam desperabam jam . . . sed tamen non abjeci, but yet I have not abandoned it, i. e. its purchase, id. Fam. 9, 15: abjectis nugis, nonsense apart, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 141 (cf. amoto ludo, id. S. 1, 1, 27).
      2. 2. To cast down to a lower grade, to degrade, humble, Cic. Leg. 1, 9: hic annus senatus auctoritatem abjecit, degraded or lowered the authority of the Senate, id. Att. 1, 18; so also id. Tusc. 5, 18; id. de Or. 3, 26, 104.
        Hence, abjectae res, reduced circumstances (opp. florentes), Nep. Att. 8; Cic. Quint. 30; Tac. A. 4, 68.
      3. 3. Abicere se, to throw one’s self away, degrade one’s self, v. Cic. Tusc. 2, 23: ut enim fit, etc.
        Hence, abjectus, a, um, P. a., downcast, disheartened, désponding; low, mean, abject, worthless, unprincipled.
    1. A. Quo me miser conferam? An domum? matremne ut miseram lamentantem videam et abjectam? Gracch. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 56, 214: plura scribere non possum, ita sum animo perculso et abjecto, Cic. Att. 3, 2.
    2. B. Nihil abjectum, nihil humile cogitare, Cic. Fin. 5, 20: contemptum atque abjectum, id. Agr. 2, 34: verbis nec inops nec abjectus, id. Brut. 62, 222 al.
      Comp.: animus abjectior, Cic. Lael. 16; Liv. 9, 6.
      Sup.: animus abjectissimus, Quint. 11, 1, 13 al.
      Adv.: abjectē.
      1. 1. Dispiritedly, despondingly: in dolore est providendum, ne quid abjecte, ne quid timide, ne quid ignave faciamus, Cic. Tusc. 2, 23, 55; id. Phil. 3, 11, 28.
      2. 2. Low, meanly: quo sordidius et abjectius nati sunt, Tac. Or. 8: incuriose et abjecte verbum positum, improperly, Gell. 2, 6, 1.

ăbĭēgnus, a, um, adj. (poet., also tri. syllabic; collateral form ABIEGNEVS, Inscr. Napol.) [abies], made of fir-wood or deal: trabes, i. e. a ship, Enn. ap. Auct. ad Her. 2, 22, 34: sors, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 32: equus, i. e. the wooden horse before Troy, Prop. 4, 1, 25 (cf. Verg. A. 2, 16): stipes, Att. ap. Fest. p. 219 Müll. (Trag. Rel. p. 170 Rib.): hastile, Liv. 21, 8, 10: scobis, Col. 12, 44, 4 al.

ăbĭens, euntis, Part. of abeo.

ăbĭēs, ĕtis (abietis, abiete, trisyllabic in poet., Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 3, 19, 44; Verg. A. 2, 16 al.; so, abietibus, quadrisyl. sometimes, as Verg. A. 9, 674), f. [etym. uncer., perh. akin to ἀλδαίνω; cf. ἐλάτη = pinus],

  1. I. the silver-fir: Pinus picea, Linn.: ἐλάτη, the tree as well as the wood of it, Plin. 16, 10, 19, § 48; Pall. 12, 15, 1: abies consternitur alta, Enn. ap. Macr. 6, 2 (Ann. v. 195 Vahl.): crispa, id. ap. Cic. Tusc. 3, 19, 44 (Trag. v. 117 ib.): enodis, Ov. M. 10. 94. In Verg., on account of its dark foliage, called nigra: nigrā abiete, A. 3, 599: abietibus patriis aequi juvenes, tall as their native firs, id. ib. 9, 674 (imitation of Hom. ll. 5, 560: ἐλάτῃσιν ἐοικότες ὑψηλῇσιν).
  2. II. Poet., meton. (cf. Quint. 8, 6, 20), like the Greek ἐλάτη, any thing made of fir.
      1. 1. = epistula, a letter (written on a tablet of fir), Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 66 (cf. Engl. book, i. e. beech).
      2. 2. = navis, a ship, Verg. G. 2, 68; id. A. 8, 91; cf. id. ib. 5, 663.
      3. 3. = hasta, a lance, Verg. A. 11, 667.

ăbĭĕtārĭus, a, um, adj. [abies], pertaining to fir-wood, deal: negotio, Paul. ex Fest. p. 27 Müll.
Subst.: ăbĭĕtārĭus, ii, m., a joiner, Vulg. Exod. 35, 35.

* ăbĭga, ae, f. [abigo], a plant which has the power of producing abortion; Greek χαμαίπιτυς, ground-pine: Teucrium iva, Linn.; Plin. 24, 6, 20, § 29.

* ăbĭgĕātor, ōris, m., = abigeus or abactor, a cattle-stealer, Paul. Sent. 5, 18.

ăbĭgĕātus, ūs, m. [abigeus], cattlestealing, Dig. 47, 14, 1 sq.; 49, 16, 5, § 2.

ăbĭgĕus, i, m. [abigo], one that drives away cattle, a cattle-stealer, Dig. 47, 14, 1; 48, 19, 16.

ăb-ĭgo, ēgi, actum, 3, v. a. [ago], to drive away.

  1. I. Lit.
    1. A. In gen.: abigam jam ego illum advenientem ab aedibus, I will drive him away as soon as he comes, Plaut. Am. prol. 150: jam hic me abegerit suo odio, he will soon drive me away, id. As. 2, 4, 40; so Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 47; Varr. R. R. 2, 1; Cic. de Or. 2, 60 al.: uxorem post divortium, to remove from the house, Suet. Tib. 7.
    2. B. In partic.
      1. 1. To drive away cattle: familias abripuerunt, pecus abegerunt, Cic. Pis. 34; so id. Verr. 2, 1, 10; 3, 23; Liv. 1, 7, 4; 4, 21; Curt. 5, 13 al.
      2. 2. Medic. t. t.
        1. a. To remove a disease: febres, Plin. 25, 9, 59, § 106; 30, 11, 30 fin.: venenatorum morsus, id. 20, 5, 19.
        2. b. To force birth, procure abortion: partum medicamentis, Cic. Clu. 11; so Plin. 14, 18, 22; Tac. A. 14, 63; Suet. Dom. 22 al.
  2. II. Trop., to drive away an evil, get rid of a nuisance: pestem a me, Enn. ap. Cic. Ac. 2, 28, 89 (Trag. v. 50 Vahl.): lassitudinem abs te, Plaut. Merc. 1, 2, 3: curas, Hor. Ep. 1, 15, 19: pauperiem epulis regum, id. S. 2, 2, 44 al.
    Hence, ăbactus, a, um, P. a.
    1. A. Of magistrates, driven away, forced to resign their office, Paul. ex Fest. p. 23 Müll.
    2. B. Abacta nox, i. q. finita, finished, passed, Verg. A. 8, 407.
    3. C. Abacti oculi, poet., deep, sunken, Stat. Th. 1, 104.

Ăbĭi, ōrum, m., a Scythian tribe in Asia, Curt. 7, 6, 11; Amm. 23, 6, 53.

ăbĭtĭo, ōnis, f. [abeo], a going away, departure.

  1. I. In gen. (ante-class. for abitus), Plaut. Rud. 2, 6, 19; Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 16.
  2. II. In partic., = mors, death, acc. to Gloss. ap. Paul. ex Fest. p. 380, 9 Müll.

* ā-bīto, ĕre, 3, v. n. [bēto, bīto], to go away, depart: ne quo abitat, Plaut. Rud. 3, 4, 72; cf. Lucil. ap. Vel. Long. p. 2225 P.

ăbĭtus, ūs, m. [abeo], a going away, departure.

  1. I. Lit., in abstr. (class.): cum videam miserum hunc tam excruciarier ejus abitu, Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 5; 4, 4, 24; Lucr. 1, 457 and 677; * Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 54, § 125; Plin. 18, 31, 74, § 311 al.
  2. II. Transf., in concr., the place through which one goes, the outlet, place of egress (as aditus, of entrance): omnemque abitum custode coronant, they surround the outlet with guards, Verg. A. 9, 380; so in plur.: circumjecta vehicula sepserant abitus, barricaded the passages out, Tac. A. 14, 37.

abjectē, adv., v. abicio, P. a. fin.

abjectĭo, ōnis, f. [abicio].

  1. * I. A throwing away or rejecting: figurarum (opp. additio), Quint. 9, 3, 18.
  2. * II. Abjectio animi, dejection, despondency (joined h. l. with debilitatio), Cic. Pis. 36, 88.

abjectus, a, um, v. abicio, P. a.

abjicio, v. abicio.

* abjūdĭcātīvus, a, um, adj., in later philos. lang. = negativus, negative, Pseudo pp. Dogm. Plat. p. 30 Elm. (267 Oud.).

ab-jūdĭco, āvi, ātum, 1, v. a., to deprive one of a thing by judicial sentence, to declare that it does not belong to one, to abjudicate, lit. and trop. (opp. adjudico); constr. with aliquid or aliquem ab aliquo, or alicui: abjudicata a me modo est Palaestra, Plaut. Rud. 5, 1, 3; 4, 3, 100; id. As. 3, 3, 17: (Rullus) judicabit Alexandream regis esse, a populo Romano abjudicabit, Cic. Agr. 2, 16; cf.: rationem veritatis, integritatisab hoc ordine abjudicari, id. Verr. 2, 1, 2, § 4: sibi libertatem, id. Caecin. 34 (in Cic. de Or. 2, 24, 102, many since Budaeus, acc. to the MSS., read abdĭco; so B. and K.).

* ab-jūgo, āre, 1, v. a., lit., to loose from the yoke; hence, in gen., to remove, to separate from: quae res te ab stabulis abjugat? Pac. ap. Non. 73, 22 (Trag. Rel. p. 104 Rib.).

abjunctus, a, um, Part. of abjungo.

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